What the research tells us

Report
Alcohol Interventions:
What the research tells us
Professor Colin Drummond
Alcohol use disorders: prevalence
Drummond et al., 2005
• 26% of the adult population have an alcohol use disorder
(AUD)
• Includes 38% of men & 16% of women aged 16-64
• 23% of the adult population are hazardous or harmful
alcohol users (7.1 million people in England)
• 21% of men and 9% of women engage in binge drinking
• Prevalence of alcohol dependence is 3.6% overall, 6%
among men, and 2% among women (1.1 million people
in England)
Alcohol dependence is considerably more prevalent than drug abuse
Alcohol Needs Assessment Research Project, 2005
“The habit of
drunkenness
is a disease of
the mind”
NICE Guidance 2010-11
• Alcohol use disorders
– Preventing harmful drinking (PH24)
– Diagnosis and clinical management of alcohol
related physical complications (CG100)
– Diagnosis, assessment and management of
harmful drinking and alcohol dependence (CG)
• Related guidance
– Psychiatric comorbidity (CG)
– Complex pregnancies (CG)
NICE Guidance 2010-11
• Alcohol use disorders
– Preventing harmful drinking (PH24)
– Diagnosis and clinical management of alcohol
related physical complications (CG100)
– Diagnosis, assessment and management of
harmful drinking and alcohol dependence (CG)
• Related guidance
– Psychiatric comorbidity (CG)
– Complex pregnancies (CG)
Preventing harmful drinking –
evidence relevant to interventions
• AUDIT high sensitivity and specificity
• Laboratory markers poor screening tools
• Brief interventions effective (27 systematic
reviews)
• Brief advice as effective as extended brief
intervention ~ brief more cost effective
• Brief interventions less effective in alcohol
dependence than hazardous/harmful drinkers
• Most evidence in primary care, limited for acute
care & CJS settings
Preventing harmful drinking (PH24)
• All NHS professionals and non-NHS
• Routine alcohol screening
– Universal
– Targeted “if not feasible”
•
•
•
•
•
Validated screening tool (AUDIT, FAST etc)
Don’t use biological markers
Structured brief advice- all hazardous/harmful
Extended brief- non-responders
Referral of moderate/severe alcohol
dependence/non-responders to brief
interventions
Clinical management
• Unplanned withdrawal:
– Admit high risk, vulnerable and under 16s
– Symptom triggered regime more cost effective
– Benzodiazepine or carbamazepine
– CIWA monitoring
• Wernicke’s encephalopathy
– Oral thiamine for most
– Parenteral for malnourished, liver disease and in
AED or admitted for acute illness or injury
Management of harmful drinking and
alcohol dependence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identification and assessment
Care coordination
Settings
Assisted withdrawal
Psychosocial interventions
Pharmacological interventions
Comorbidity
Children and young people
Identification and assessment
• Competence
• Motivational interviewing
• Alcohol misuse, dependence, problems, risk,
need for assisted withdrawal
• Formal assessment tools (AUDIT, SADQ, LDQ,
APQ, CIWA, MMSE)
• Treatment goals
• Children and young people
Care pathway – case identification and possible
diagnosis for adults
Screen (PAT, FAST, SASQ etc.) indicates
possible alcohol use disorder
Administer: AUDIT
AUDIT < 8
AUDIT 8–15
AUDIT 16–19
AUDIT 20+
Hazardous
drinking
Harmful drinking
Probable alcohol
dependence
Brief intervention
Extended brief
intervention(s)
Referral to specialist
assessment/withdraw
al assessment
Review of progress
Referral to specialist
assessment where no
improve maintained
Consider Tier 2
interventions
Consider Tier 2 or 3
interventions/
immediate withdrawal
assessment for acute
inpatients settings and
prisons
Interventions: delivery and setting
•
•
•
•
•
•
Competence, manuals, supervision
Care coordination
Case management – alcohol dependence
Stepped care and ACT
Inpatient withdrawal management
Structured intensive community programme
– Moderate severe dependence, social support, complex
needs
• Residential rehabilitation
– Moderate severe dependence AND homeless
– 3 months
Interventions
• Harmful/mild dependence
– CBT, BT, Social Network therapy
– BCT
– Non-responders: offer acamprosate, naltrexone plus
psychosocial
• Moderate/severe dependence
–
–
–
–
–
Assisted withdrawal
Intensive community programme
Acamprosate or naltrexone plus
CBT, BT, SNT, BCT
Disulfiram (second line, suitability/preference)
• Children and young people under 18
– Inpatient for withdrawal
– CBT, multi-component programmes
– Acamprosate or naltrexone (second line 16-18 only)
• Families and carers
– Assessment and intervention in their own right
Association between baseline severity and effect size
in naltrexone versus placebo trials (logRR)
Assisted withdrawal
• Threshold for assessment: >20 AUDIT >15
units/day
• Community based withdrawal programme - most
• Inpatient assisted withdrawal
– >30 SADQ, fits or DTs
– OR 15-30 plus benzodiazepine, mental or physical
comorbidity, learning disability, cognitive impairment
– Lower threshold for homeless, older, younger,
pregnancy, homeless
• Regimes
– Community: fixed dose
– Inpatient: fixed dose or symptom triggered
AUDIT
AUDIT > 20
Consider need for alcohol
withdrawal
AUDIT < 20

Outcome of assessment
SADQ < 15
Typical drinks per day < 15
SADQ 15–30
Typical drinks per day < 30 units
Absence of comorbid features
SADQ ≥ 30
Typical drinks per day ≥ 30 units
Comorbid features present
Consider Tier 2 or 3 interventions:
Outpatient (Tier 3 interventions):
Inpatient (Tier 4 interventions):
Psychological and pharmacological interventions
Comprehensive assessment where comorbid
features present
Assisted alcohol withdrawal
Assisted alcohol withdrawal
Gap between need and access (PSUR) by region

similar documents