Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1. Inspired by Enlightenment ideas 2. Creole discontent 3. Motivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions. 4. Napoleonic Wars Preoccupy Spain & Portugal in fighting in war in Europe 5. Taken advantage of by Europeans via economic policies which benefited Europe at the expense of the native Latin Americans Latin American Revolutions! Latin American Revolutions! First Colony to revolt…Haiti Home Country: French colony Date of Independence: 1804 Independence Leaders: - Toussiant-Louverture (former slave) - Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general) Haitian Independence: 1791= slave revolt 1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves) 1802= French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution 1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence Argentina Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1816 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) Argentiaian Independence: 1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government in a bloodless revolution 1816= Martin declares Argentina independent! Bolivar coming from the North. The “Muscle” of the Revolution José de St. Martín and Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains. Chile Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1817 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Bernard O’Higgins (military officer) Chile Independence: 1817= San Martin leads his army across the Andes and spreads revolution into Chile 1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins & defeat Spanish; declares Chile independent! Simón Bolivar: The “Brains” of the Revolution Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela. Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States. Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821/1822 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole /military general) Gran Columbia Independence: 1811= Venezuela declares independence! 1811-1821= Revolution vs. Spain 1821= Bolivar wins independence! 1821= Revolution spreads to Columbia & Ecuador 1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation called Gran Columbia established Bolivar’s Accomplishment Simón Bolivar & José de San Martin Join Forces! Peru Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1824 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general) Peruvian Independence: 1821= San Martin takes revolution to Spanish in Peru 1822= San Martin & Bolivar join forces to fight Spanish 1822= San Martin leaves for Europe 1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho Bolivia Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1825 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/milit. general) Bolivian Independence: 1824= Bolivar continues revolution by driving out the remaining Spanish from Peru 1825= Upper & Lower Peru separate; Lower Peru named Bolivia (after Bolivar) Brazil Home Country: Portuguese colony Date of Independence: 1822 Independence Leaders: - Dom Joao aka King John (King of Portugal) - Dom Pedro (son of King John) Brazillian Independence: 1807= King John flees to Brazil to escape Napoleon 1815= Napoleon defeated; King John heads back 1822= Brazilian creoles seek independence 1822= Brazilian creoles request Dom Pedro take over Brazil as ruler; King John agrees! Mexico Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821 Independence Leaders: - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest; leader of revolution) - Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (priest & rebel leader) - General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer) - Venustiano Carranza (1st President of Mexico) Mexican Independence: 1810= Costilla starts rebellion against Spanish 1811= Costilla defeated, captured, and executed 1811= Pavon leads Mexican Revolution (next 4 years) 1815= Ituribe helps Spanish defeat Pavon 1821= Ituribe turns on Spanish & makes peace with Pavon & declares Mexican independence! No Unity! Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America = $ Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries. Geographic & Cultural Issues Geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.) and vast distances between lands Cultural differences defeated attempts at unification Independence Brought Poverty! The wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside. Caudillos take Over! WHO WERE THEY?: $ military dictators who seize power via coup $ Mostly wealthy “creole” aristocrats. $ Followed the fight for independence. $ Posed as reformers. $ BUT…once in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights. $ Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves,their families and their friends [nepotism]. Dependence on Foreign Nations Foreign nations needed for investments and capital What is the Message?