Causes of Latin American
1. Inspired by Enlightenment ideas
2. Creole discontent
3. Motivated by the “successful” American and
French Revolutions.
4. Napoleonic Wars Preoccupy Spain & Portugal
in fighting in war in Europe
5. Taken advantage of by Europeans via
economic policies which benefited Europe at
the expense of the native Latin Americans
Latin American Revolutions!
Latin American Revolutions!
First Colony to revolt…Haiti
Home Country: French colony
Date of Independence: 1804
Independence Leaders:
- Toussiant-Louverture (former slave)
- Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general)
Haitian Independence:
1791= slave revolt
1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves)
1802= French troops arrive & agreement made
to stop revolution
1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and
declares independence
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1816
Independence Leaders:
- Jose de San Martin
(Spanish military officer)
Argentiaian Independence:
1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government
in a bloodless revolution
1816= Martin declares Argentina independent!
Bolivar coming
from the
The “Muscle” of the
José de St. Martín and
Bernard O’Higgins cross the
Andes Mountains.
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1817
Independence Leaders:
- Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)
- Bernard O’Higgins (military officer)
Chile Independence:
1817= San Martin leads his army across the
Andes and spreads revolution into Chile
1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins & defeat Spanish;
declares Chile independent!
Simón Bolivar:
The “Brains”
of the
 Creole leader of
the revolutions in
 Spent time in
Europe and the
United States.
Venezuela, Columbia, and Ecuador
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1821/1822
Independence Leaders:
- Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole
/military general)
Gran Columbia Independence:
1811= Venezuela declares independence!
1811-1821= Revolution vs. Spain
1821= Bolivar wins independence!
1821= Revolution spreads to Columbia & Ecuador
1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation
called Gran Columbia established
Bolivar’s Accomplishment
Simón Bolivar & José de San
Martin Join Forces!
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1824
Independence Leaders:
- Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer)
- Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general)
Peruvian Independence:
1821= San Martin takes revolution to Spanish in Peru
1822= San Martin & Bolivar join forces to fight Spanish
1822= San Martin leaves for Europe
1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1825
Independence Leaders:
- Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/milit. general)
Bolivian Independence:
1824= Bolivar continues revolution by driving out the
remaining Spanish from Peru
1825= Upper & Lower Peru separate; Lower Peru
named Bolivia (after Bolivar)
Home Country: Portuguese colony
Date of Independence: 1822
Independence Leaders:
- Dom Joao aka King John
(King of Portugal)
- Dom Pedro
(son of King John)
Brazillian Independence:
1807= King John flees to Brazil to escape Napoleon
1815= Napoleon defeated; King John heads back
1822= Brazilian creoles seek independence
1822= Brazilian creoles request Dom Pedro take
over Brazil as ruler; King John agrees!
Home Country: Spanish colony
Date of Independence: 1821
Independence Leaders:
- Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest; leader of revolution)
- Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (priest & rebel leader)
- General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer)
- Venustiano Carranza (1st President of Mexico)
Mexican Independence:
1810= Costilla starts rebellion against Spanish
1811= Costilla defeated, captured, and executed
1811= Pavon leads Mexican Revolution (next 4 years)
1815= Ituribe helps Spanish defeat Pavon
1821= Ituribe turns on Spanish & makes peace with
Pavon & declares Mexican independence!
No Unity!
 Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united
South America =
$ Civil wars erupt in many newly
independent countries.
Geographic & Cultural Issues
 Geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon,
etc.) and vast distances between lands
 Cultural differences defeated attempts
at unification
Independence Brought
 The wars
disrupted trade.
 The wars
devastated the
cities and the
Caudillos take Over!
$ military dictators who seize power via coup
$ Mostly wealthy “creole” aristocrats.
$ Followed the fight for independence.
$ Posed as reformers.
$ BUT…once in power overthrew govt. & took
away basic human rights.
$ Attempted improvements, but most just
cared about themselves,their families and
their friends [nepotism].
Dependence on Foreign
 Foreign nations needed for investments
and capital
What is the Message?

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