CEL 795 Term Paper Report on “REMOVAL OF BACTERIA BY FILTERATION FROM STORM WATER” PREPARED UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR. ARUN KUMAR ASSTT PROFESSOR IIT DELHI Submitted by: Shantanu Parashar Preeti Dinker Lalaram Background and objective Parameter of concern in rain water : • Total solids : Dissolved salts, metals, suspended solids • Pathogens: E. coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, Vibrio, Salmonella and Pseudomonas Background: inadequate microbial removal capacity of conventional sand media Objective : To Review all present research going on sand media filter for maximization of removal of bacteria from rain water Method used 1. Understanding of the hydraulic flow condition within the filter and comparison with SSF • • • • Uniform drip flow over the sand surface by use of a plastic or sheet metal diffuser Depth of the BSF sand layer is about 50% less than for the SSF (0.4 m compared to a recommended starting depth of >0.8 m for the SSF with a minimum of 0.5–0.7 m) Maximum recommended filtration rate of the BSF is nearly 15 times greater than for the SSF (1.1 m/h in contrast to a recommended ( 0.08–0.4m/h) (Fox et al., 1994) BSF uses local material whereas SSF sand are mostly from a commercial source. 2. Key parameters of filter operation and their effects on filter performance • • • Enhanced particle straining due to bio layer formation Improved depth filtration by slowing the filtration rate Altered the surface properties of the filtration media. 3. Examine and compare e-coli removal from (bio sand filter-standard (BSF-S), biosand iron coated.(MBSF) 4. different microorganisms (MS-2, E. coli and poliovirus) was passed through columns containing sand modified by FeCl3 and AlCl3 Observation • Present status • Removal of turbidity by the BSF was not as high as reported for conventional SSF (Sims and Slezak, 1991) • MBSF showed a slightly higher effluent turbidity compared to BSF (Mansoor M.A, Davra K,2011) • Amount of water per charge and pause period are important operating parameters for both BSF and MBSF (Baumgartner et al ,2007) (Elliott et al,2008) • Microbial reductions could be increased by increasing the retention time of water in the filter(Elliott et al,2008) • MBSF always gave better performance in terms of bacteria removal in comparison to BSF (Mansoor M.A, Davra K,2011) • Ripening and biofilm development defy easy quantification based on water volume and water quality charged to the filter per day (Campos et al., 2002) Possibility of improvement • To improve removal efficiency Screening can be used before filtration to remove suspended solid. • Chlorination can be performed after filtration • UV rays or solar disinfection can further improve the process. Challenges and future scope • Mechanisms of virus removal or inactivation in the BSF, however, require further investigation • Biofilm development defy easy quantification based on water volume and water quality charged to the filter per day • Organic matter and suspended solids interfere with the adsorption of virus in filter media .The performance of biosand filter under this situation requires investigation Reference • (1) Ahammed M. M., Davra K., Performance evaluation of biosand filter modified with iron oxide-coated sand for household treatment of drinking water, J. desalination 276(2011) 287-293 • (2) American Public Health Association, Standards Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20 th ed. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington DC, USA, 1998. • (3) Cromeans T., Sobsey M. D., Fields H. 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