Foreign Language Immersion Programs Bilingual Education Programs Rationale for Immersion Majority language speakers need to learn minority language. Children are the best language learners. They learn best through content. They need exposure to the language throughout the day. Accuracy develops without grammar instruction. Immersion Models Canadian immersion programs Early immersion Delayed immersion Late immersion U. S. foreign language immersion programs Dual immersion programs Research on Immersion High functional proficiency. Listen and speaking usually better in early immersion. Literacy better in later immersion. Some forms not acquired. Classroom dialect develops. Older children begin avoiding using the language. Focus on product - process ignored. Immersion Programs to Visit Dual Immersion – Arlington County Key School and DC Oyster School. Fairfax and Montgomery Counties – Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Spanish. Rationale for Bilingual Education Conceptual development in L1 Time needed for L2 academic language proficiency Transfer of concepts and skills Social and affective needs Societal needs Equity and human rights Elementary Bilingual Program Models Transitional/early-exit Maintenance/late-exit Two-way or dual immersion; enrichment/developmental Secondary Bilingual Program Models Transitional Maintenance Content-based ESL with L1 class Sheltered content in English with L1 class Choice of one or more L1 content classes Bilingual Instructional Approaches - 1 Alternate days or half-days By content subject Gradual transition from L1 to L2 Concurrent translation or codeswitching Team-teaching Bilingual Instructional Approaches - 2 Language alternation by activity L1 preview and review; presentation in L2 Instruction in L2 with student responses in L1 Native language support in ESL class Comparing Bilingual and Dual Immersion Programs Bilingual – All students of same language group; Instruction transitions from L1 to L2 (English). Dual Immersion – Class is half L1 speakers and half L2 (English); Instruction maintains both languages. Research on Bilingual Education Problems of definition. Late exit programs better than early exit. Dual immersion most effective. Major factor predicting success in English is L1 development. Older children with good schooling in L1 are most successful.