LaurieOlsen PreKKTK handout - Multilingual Education Services

Report
Powerful EL instruction and
curriculum for preschool,
kindergarten and transitional K
Findings and implications from the
Sobrato Early Academic Language (SEAL)
pilot
Laurie Olsen, Ph.D.
Accountability Institute
December 2011
English Learners
“There is no equality of treatment merely
by providing students with the same
facilities, textbooks, teachers and
curriculum…for students who do not
understand English are effectively
foreclosed from any meaningful
education…”
Lau v. Nichols, Supreme Court
GAP has increased
2002-2010
CST ELA % Proficient and above
English Only: English Learners
33.4% gap -------------------------- 37.2% gap
Percent of LEAS meeting AMAOs
2006
Met AMAO Met AMAO
1
2
73
74
2007
82
77
2008
82
81
2009
78
63
2010
51
45
Across all districts
59% of secondary school ELs are long term
(103,635 in sample)
LTELs
Other
ELLs
Long Term English Learners are
created……..
Long Term
EL
El Monte school districts
Commitment #2: Full Proficiency
English Learners will develop within
six years of continuous enrollment full
receptive and productive proficiencies
in English in the domains of listening,
speaking, reading and writing –
consistent with expectations for all
students.
Annual Expectations for
English Learners
Years
in US
1
year
CELDT BEG
2
years
3
years
4
years
5
years
6
years
EI
INT
INT
EA
ADV
Basic+ Prof+
CST
ELA
FBB + FBB+
BB+
BB+
CST
Math
FBB+
FBB+
BB+
Basic+ Prof+
Prof+
STS
Prof+
Prof+
Prof+
Prof+
Prof+
Prof+
Schooling History: weak or no language support
• 75% spent 2+ years with “no services” or
mainstream
• Increase in “mainstream” placement
• One in ten with ELD only
• One in twenty (5%) receive primary language
programs or instruction at some point
• Just over half are in structured English
immersion, ELD/SDAIE
Comparison between EL groups over time
Other contributing factors
• Inconsistent program placements
• Inconsistent implementation within programs
• Narrowed curriculum  academic gaps &
lack of academic language
• Social segregation and linguistic isolation
• Transnational moves – transnational schooling
By middle school, they have distinct
language issues
• High functioning in social situations in both
languages – but limited vocabulary in both
• Prefer English – are increasingly weak in their
home language
• Weak academic language – with gaps in
reading and writing skills
• Are stuck in progressing towards English
proficiency
The profile of where LTELs are “stuck”
differs
• Most remain at CELDT III or below
• Many, however, appear to reach CELDT
proficiency but score low enough on CST or
receive failing grades that prevent
redesignation
Typical profile
• Learned passivity, non-engagement, underlying
discomfort in classes
• Don’t ask questions or ask for help
• Tend not to complete homework or understand
the steps needed to complete assignments
• Not readers
• Typically desire to go to college – high hopes and
dreams but unaware of pathway to those dreams
• Do not know they are doing poorly academically
– think they are English fluent
Academic Gaps develop
• Several grade levels below actual grade level
in both English and L1
• Cumulative high school GPA is very low (D+
average)
• More than one in five have F averages
• Grade retention frequent
• Gaps in academic background
The continuum:
learning English as a second language

_______________________________________________________________________
No
English
Proficient
for
Academic
work
So far…to prevent the creation of LTELs
• Clearly defined EL program models (ELD plus
access), consistently implemented
• Consistency in placement and EL language
approach (no ping-pong)
• Importance of full curriculum
• Strategies that promote student engagement
as active learners
• Importance of scaffolding instruction
New generation of research
• National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
Children and Youth
• California Department of Education:
Research-based Practices for English Language
Learners (commissioned papers)
• Body of literature on early brain development
in dual language learners, linguistic and
educational research on early childhood
education
#1: Early childhood education
makes a difference
• Early years of development (cognitive,
linguistic, social) are crucial
• Quality preschool lays the foundation for
better outcomes for children once they
enter kindergarten
• Preschool reduces disparities and
longstanding achievement gaps between
groups
So…..
• Begin with preschool programs
• Active outreach/recruitment to English
Learner communities
• Attention to supporting the transition from
preschool into kindergarten
• Articulation, alignment between the two
systems (preschool and K-12)
#2: Importance of rich oral language
development in young children
• Producing language encourages learners to
process language more deeply than when just
listening or receptive.
• Verbal interaction is essential in the
construction of knowledge
• Oral language is the bridge to academic
language associated with school and the
development of literacy --
Oral language is foundational
• The vocabulary of a young child (preschool
and kinder) is predictive of language skills at
age 9 and reading comprehension
• Trends in the amount of talk, vocabulary
growth and systems of interaction using
language is well-established in the years 0 – 6
• Oral language is the foundation for literacy
and is a crucial part of a strong language
program for English Learners
National Literacy Panel
finding
• Oral language development and proficiency is critical
to literacy… and is often (and increasingly)
overlooked in instruction
• It is not enough to teach reading skills alone to
language minority students; extensive oral English
development must be incorporated into successful
literacy instruction
• Oral proficiency and literacy in the first language
facilitates literacy development in English
……. on oral language
• Producing language encourages learners to
process language more deeply than when just
listening or receptive.
• Verbal interaction is essential in the
construction of knowledge
• Oral language is the bridge to academic
language associated with school and the
development of literacy
Implications ….in primary grades
• Amount, degree and TYPE of oral
interaction is a big factor for children
• Important to stimulate the talk that allows
language learners to explore and clarify
concepts, name their world, wonder and
describe
They have to be talking!
The most powerful “early literacy”
development is ORAL LANGUAGE!
So……
• Multiple and frequent structured opportunities
for children to be engaged in producing oral
language should be features of elementary
classroom instruction
• Look for the amount, type and quality of student
talk that is generated as the mark of good
instruction
• Emphasize vocabulary development
• Model rich, expressive, amplified oral language
#3: Academic Language is
essential
• “Academic language” is different from social
language, is discipline specific and takes
longer to develop
• Academic language and literacy for ELs
develops most powerfully where background
knowledge is also being built
• Learning a second language for academic
success requires explicit language
development across the curriculum (ELD alone
is not sufficient)
Language development is much more than literacy
development – English Learners need LANGUAGE
Literacy
Skills
Communication
Knowledge
Development & concept
codification
Socio-emotional expression
and relationships
SIMPLE,
BASIC,
FUNCTIONAL
LANGUAGE
RICH,
COMPLEX,
PRECISE
LANGUAGE
SOCIAL
CONTEXTS
ACADEMIC
CONTEXTS


X
X
So…….
• Identify key academic vocabulary and
discourse patterns – and explicitly teach them
• Monitor the rigor and complexity of the
language used in text and instruction
• Set a high bar for sophisticated, complex,
precise language in both social and academic
domains
#4.
Language develops in context
• Young children develop language through play,
interaction, listening, experimenting - in the
context of going about their lives - facilitated
in an enriched and interactive environment
• An enriched environment is particularly
important for stimulating language
development in context
• Much of the early literacy curriculum is
decontextualized “language arts” - phonics,
letter-of-the-week. “Play” is increasingly
disappearing from preschool and primary
grades
Academic language develops in
context
• Academic language develops in the context of
learning academic subjects. A strong EL
program infuses intentional language
development throughout the entire
curriculum.
• For young children, science and social studies
are particularly powerful arenas for the
development of complex academic language
So……
• Dramatic play and exploratory play
opportunities in the preschool and
kindergarten classrooms – tied to content
• Attention to the classroom environment
• Intentional language development across the
curriculum
• Full curriculum – including rich science and
social studies
#5: To access the curriculum, English Learners
need specially designed instruction
The continuum:
learning English as a second language





_______________________________________________________________________
No
English
Predictable, sequential steps…….
Age/grade
level
Proficient
National Literacy Panel
finding
• “Instructional approaches effective with native English
speakers do not have as positive a learning impact on
language minority students”
• “Instruction in the key components of reading is necessary
- but not sufficient - for teaching language minority
students to read and write proficiently in English”
Implications: If the same strategies are being used
for all students, the gap will grow; specially designed
instruction is important. Interventions for English fluent
students are not as effective for English Learners
SDAIE works when……
• Students have reached an Intermediate level
(and above)
• Materials are designed for maximum
contextual cues, etc.
• Teachers understand which strategies are
meant for which levels of proficiency
• Students are grouped by level
• Instruction is paced appropriately - and key
power standards focused upon
Specially designed v.s. mainstream
• By middle and high school, ELs who have had
specialized instruction (particularly L1
instruction), are more likely to score at grade
level, less likely to drop out of high school,
often catch up to and sometimes surpass (L1)
comparison peers
• ELs in mainstream English-taught classes are
the lowest achievers in comparison to
students in any other program
What kinds of things go beyond “just
good teaching”?
• Language objectives in addition to content objectives
• Vocabulary (and language features) commonly
known by native speakers - introduced, emphasized,
repeated, practiced
• Speech appropriate for English proficiency level
• Wait time to process language
• L1 clarification - can use the L1 foundation
• Pacing of lesson accounts for EL proficiency
• Feedback on language use
So……
• Language objectives for content lessons based
on analyzing the linguistic demands of the
content
• Identify key academic vocabulary and
discourse patterns and explicitly teach them
• Professional development related to making
content accessible to English Learners
• Home language support
• Home language instruction when possible
#6: ELD instruction can advance
knowledge and use of English
• Sequential, predictable steps along continuum
from no English to English proficiency
• Carefully planned, dedicated ELD instruction
facilitates and accelerates movement towards
proficiency
• ELD instruction should emphasize listening and
speaking, explicitly teach elements of English
• ELD instruction should continue at least through
Early Advanced levels of proficiency
#7: Development of the home language is
crucial
• A child’s home language is a crucial foundation
for social interactions, cognitive development,
learning about her world, and emerging literacy
• Language of the home is vehicle for making and
establishing meaningful communication and
relationships
• Language is a socio-emotional and cultural
phenomenon - key to identity formation
• By preschool, the home language is well
established
• Development of the home language occurs in a small
minority of early care settings, preschools and early
education
• Children in English immersion ECE tend to lose ability
to communicate in L1, frequently develop
communication problems with extended families and
experience depressed academic achievement in
English
• The best foundation for literacy is a rich foundation
in language - not necessarily in English, but in the
language strongest for the child and his or her family.
• Children have more extended and complex
vocabulary and language skills if their home
language is developed
• 1st and 2nd language are interdependent - and
they transfer; instruction in the first language
facilitates proficiency in English.
• English Learners make more academic
progress when they have the opportunity to
learn in both their home language and English
• Systematic, deliberate exposure to English +
ongoing development of L1 = highest
achievement in both languages by end of 3rd
grade and beyond.
• Link between L1 reading ability and L2 reading
ability is the most direct cross-linguistic
relationship
• Effects of L2 literacy are long-lasting and
extend to performance on 8th grade
assessments
“The research indicates that instructional
programs work when they provide
opportunities for students to develop
proficiency in their first language. Studies that
compare bilingual instruction with English only
instruction demonstrate that language
minority students instructed in their native
language as well as in English perform better,
on average, on measures of English reading
proficiency than language-minority students
instructed only in English.”
National Literacy Panel on Language Minority
Children and Youth
So……
• Home language instruction and development
whenever possible to high levels of proficiency
• Transfer focus and contrastive analysis
• Parent education about the crucial role of
developing the home language and what can
be done at home to support that
#8: There are benefits to bilingualism
• Bilingual children perform better than
monolinguals on select cognitive tasks (brain
benefits)
• There are social and economic benefits to
mastery of two or more languages –
particularly in this 21st century.
Yet myths and misunderstandings persist..
• Learning two languages will confuse children and
lead to delays or disorders. With less exposure to
each language, neither will become developed
fully - and they will not attain proficiency equal to
monolingual children in either language
• If we want them to master English, the sooner
and more fully they are immersed in English, the
better.
• They don’t really have much development in
either language, so it might as well be English we
focus on at school
• Development of the home language is a family
responsibility. Schools should just focus on
English.
• Home language holds students back
• Good teaching and standards-based
curriculum work for all students and are
sufficient for ELLs
• English is the most important subject for ELLs
– the more hours, the better
Action Steps

• Know the research
• Determine which aspects of the research are
most important to make known at this point in
to order to clarify myths/misconceptions that
may be in the way of delivering a strong EL
research-based program
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Begin with preschool
Program consistency from PreK up through grades
Well-defined EL program research-based models
Intentional language development approaches, programs,
curriculum
English PLUS – home language developed along with
English
Exposure to high level, rich, expressive, precise and
academic language
Full curriculum
Monitor and identify students lagging behind – triggering
appropriate support
Oral production, oral production, oral production!
Structured and supported engagement with English users
and models
An inclusive environment and climate matters
Engagement and participation!
HIGH EXPECTATIONS!
The SEAL Pilot
Sobrato Early Academic Language
A Case Example
SEAL is……
• A PreK-3 PILOT for Spanish-speaking English Learner
children
• A research-based model of an age-appropriate,
coherent and articulated preschool through third
grade approach that prepares children for academic
success in elementary school and beyond, and that
provides a seamless transition from preschool into
the K-12 system and through third grade.
• The vision is children with high level cognitive,
language and literacy skills – and who are confident,
motivated, engaged learners
The pilot regional sites
• “Real school” conditions (PI, budget
crises, etc.)
• San Jose Unified School District: 2
elementary schools, 3 feeder preschool
sites (community based, plus state-funded
preschools)
• Redwood City School District: 1
elementary school, 2 feeder preschool
sites
The SEAL Model:
• An INTENSIVE, INTENTIONAL, standards-based
language development approach that infuses all
aspects of the school day
• A system of teacher professional development,
collaboration, coaching, facilitated reflective practice,
and resources that support the customization and
implementation of the model
• A process of curriculum and instructional alignment
(infusing language rich strategies into the core; creation
of science and social studies based thematic units)
FOUR PILLARS
Focus on
Academic
Language &
Discourse:
• Oral language
• Biliteracy
• Language
development
through enriched
thematic curriculum
• Text engagement
Alignment
of
Preschool
and K-12
system
Parents and
Teachers
Working
Together:
Parent
Engagement
Affirming
Enviroment
Defining the language model:
• PreK and Kinder: Minimum of 50% in home
language - minimum of 20% of English
throughout the entire school year
• Home language for rich initial concept
development
• English builds upon the home language
• Intentional focus on the relationship between the
two languages - and on “transfer”
• Languages separated
• AND the intentional language development
strategies are also implemented in the SEI
classrooms
10 High Leverage Instructional Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Complex, precise, academic vocabulary development
Free voluntary reading
Dramatic play
Think Pair Share (structured interactions)
Read Alouds
Narrative/Story Retell
Graphic Organizers and visuals
Songs and chants
Facilitated dialogue in socio-emotional, experiential
and relationship domains
Professional Development
• PreK and K-3 GLAD
• Anti-bias curriculum training
• SEAL designed p.d. on language development,
assessment, oral language and text
engagement strategies, “rich expressive
language”
• Coaching by Facilitator
• Investment in teacher collaboration time
Professional Development
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work intensively with two grade levels/year
Adaptation of model to grade level
Full time facilitator position/campus
Monthly grade-level planning, collaboration,
Curriculum/instructional planning to “fit it in”
“All SEAL” professional development 3x/year
Summer Bridge as enrichment for children, professional
development for teachers, transition for families
Observation/Reflection
• The importance of clear agreed upon
understanding of what it looks like in a
classroom
• Teachers make meaning of the principles and
co-construct the indicators
• Tool used for: depth of implementation gauge,
coaching, planning professional development
Pedagogy and Planning Approach
• Teachers need to KNOW the standards they
have to teach
• Teachers need a repertoire of best practices
and instructional approaches
• Teachers need to understand language
development so they can be intentional and
focused
Intensive curriculum planning
• The “big sort” of language arts, science and social
studies standards to build thematic units
• Core program analysis – must-dos, may-dos
• Define a yearly plan of thematic units
• Insert powerful language strategies into core
programs
• Incorporate socio-emotional and student
experience content
• Specialists/residencies – art, science, music
Alignment of the System
• Summer Bridge
• Joint p.d., observations
• Shared parent education across preschool and
kindergarten
• Dual language oral assessments PreK-3
• Cross-grade level dialogues
• Clear program design and articulation of
language of instruction
Working in and across two
systems
•
•
•
•
•
•
Summer Bridge programs (PreK-K, and K-1)
Joint professional development
Observation and classroom visits
Transition activities for students and families
Joint parent education and services
Outreach from elementary campus to preschool families
Parent Engagement
• Workshops for parents on supporting
language, bilingualism, literacy
• Develop cadre of parent volunteers for the
classroom (focused on language and literacy)
• Family Center (Hoover)
• Parent ESL classes
• Family Science and Literacy Nights
Affirming Environment
• Classroom environment reflective of the
children and their families
• Parents in the classroom
• Bilingual Authors and Illustrators visits
• Focus on building community, building the
language to talk about feelings and experience
• Climate supportive of bilingualism (including
pathways to bilingualism awards)
The Evaluation/Research
• Dr. Kathryn Lindholm-Leary
• Longitudinal design following cohorts of students from
entering preschool through third grade
• Data points: Pre-K entry, K entry, 1st grade, end of third
grade
• Pre LAS (language assessment scale) in both English and
Spanish; Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP-R);
Initial CELDT at kindergarten enrollment; district
benchmarks; CSTs and STS; Family Literacy Practices scale.
• SEAL Observation/Reflection tools
• Degree of Implementation Rubrics
• End of Year Surveys and Interviews
Major questions
• To what degree did the performance of SEAL
preschool students improve during the 09/10 year?
• How do the SEAL Cohort I students compare to other
students who are demographically similar to them?
• Is there a difference between students receiving
English/SEI vs. bilingual instruction?
Implementation
• Great majority of teachers made significant
progress towards SEAL implementation. 80%
evidenced good implementation; 95% report
“a major positive impact on my teaching”.
• Kindergarten teachers universally report
children entering from a SEAL preschool have
much higher levels and more active use of
language
Student impacts
• Begin with very low levels of language
• All children made significant gains at each school
in all areas of development (language, literacy,
cognition and social skills)
• Those in bilingual programs made excellent
progress in Spanish language development, while
making significant gains in English language
development
• Having started preschool at lowest levels of
Spanish (PreLAS), by end of kindergarten 50%
were at highest proficiency level
• Scored comparable or higher than all
comparison groups –including Head Start and
a first grade dual language comparison group
in both English and Spanish
• Children in both SEI/English and Bilingual
programs made significant growth overall;
Children in bilingual programs made far more
growth in Spanish
• SEAL had a significant impact on parents and
literacy activities in the home
Challenges:
• Working within parameters of curriculum
mandates & pacing guides
• Thematic instruction in context of
fragmented curriculum
• Bilingualism/Biliteracy are low priority
• Context of severe budget cuts - increased
class size enrollment & limited release time
• Bringing community-based preschools into
the circle
•
•
•
•
Staffing changes
Pressures of Testing
Materials
Much of “school readiness” activity sets a low
bar and doesn’t address issues of engagement
or language
• Awareness and urgency about the
development of LTELs isn’t evident in TK
planning
Thank you!
[email protected]

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