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Target Behavior
City School District of Albany
September 18, 2014
Presented by: Brianna Olsen and Cathy Huttner
When do we need to develop
an FBA?
• The student exhibits persistent behaviors that
impede his or her learning or that of others, despite
consistently implemented school-wide or classroomwide interventions
• The student’s IEP indicates behaviors that impede
his or her learning or that of others
• The student exhibits behavior that places the
student or others at risk of harm or injury
• The student is being referred to the CSE due to
behaviors concerns
When do we need to
develop an FBA?
• The CSE is considering more restrictive programs or
placements as a result of the student’s behavior
• The student has a high number of office referrals, inschool suspension, and/or out-of-school suspension
• If the manifestation team determines that the
conduct was a manifestation of the student’s
disability, an FBA will be conducted
When should FBA’s be completed?
A new FBA and BIP should theoretically be completed by the first week in
November for every student who meets one of the above requirements
Protocol Changes
If the TARGET BEHAVIOR remains the same
You do NOT need to create a new FBA, which means that you do
NOT need to obtain consent.
o
o
However, you MUST revise the student’s BIP to reflect any changes.
You also need to collect new BASELINE data for the new school year. This gives us a “starting
point” and also highlights any regression.
If the TARGET BEHAVIOR is different–
You DO need to obtain consent for a NEW FBA and follow district
protocol.
o
However, it is important to note that some of your interventions might carry over, depending on
the new target behavior and hypothesized function
YOU DO NOT NEED TO OBTAIN CONSENT TO REVISE A BIP
You only need consent if you are changing the FBA (i.e., new Target
Behavior) or initiating a new FBA
REMEMBER Sped STUDENTS WILL REQUIRE CONSENT ISSUED AND
DOCUMENTED THROUGH IEP DIRECT!
Your handout packet includes NEW stuff!
What a surprise!
1. Planning Worksheet
2. FBA Consent process (step-by-step directions for IEP
students)
3. Directions for saving documents to the shared drive
and IEP Direct Document Repository
4. Timeline for Completion of FBA/BIP – 2-sided
5. The Amazing Traveling Target Behavior
6. Social Significance of Target Behavior
(Questions)/Prioritizing Target Behavior (Questions) –
2-sided
7. Behavior Plans Comparison Chart
And don’t forget…..
This year ALL
FBA/BIP
documents need to
be done as WEBBASED documents.
No more HARD
COPIES!
IEP DIRECT
DOCUMENT REPOSITORY
IEP DIRECT NOW HAS the capacity to save/attach
additional supportive documents.
For identified students FBA/BIP/Progress Monitoring
data will be saved directly to the student’s IEP DIRECT
account – the Sped Shared Drive will (probably)
become obsolete.
Link to training video:
http://webinar.iepdirect.com/default.asp?VID=53
What we will learn today:
•
•
•
•
How to choose a target behavior
How to define a target behavior
What is a Replacement Behavior?
What is a Goal Baseline?
FROM THIS
TO THIS!!!
Choosing a Target
Behavior
• A target behavior is the behavior selected for
change
• The behavior must be socially important
• There is a difference between an annoying
behavior and a problem behavior
• Does the behavior impact the learning of the
individual and/or his/her peers?
Exploration phase
Narrow down the possible target
behaviors
o Information may come from interviews, scatterplots, record
reviews, point sheets, etc..
o As a team*, determine which target behavior to address.
o The target behavior is not always the most dangerous behavior.
o Use the prioritizing handout to help narrow down target behavior
if the team has concerns for several
behaviors.
o Use the social significance questions
to make sure the target behavior is
meaningful to the student.
*Minimally Teacher, Social Worker,
Psychologist… other staff as appropriate
Defining Target Behaviors
• If a behavior is observable you must be able to:
o see it,
o hear it,
o touch it, or
o otherwise prove its existence
• If a behavior is measurable you must be able to determine:
o how many (frequency),
o how long (duration),
o other measurements
Defining Target Behaviors
Can we measure these behaviors (as written)?
o Hyperactive
DON’T LOOK AT
o Inattentive
ME..
I HAVE NO IDEA
o Insubordinate
WHAT ANY OF
o Non-compliant
THAT MEANS
o Polite
o Fidgety
TARGET BEHAVIOR SAMPLE
•
Daniel will exhibit physical and verbal aggression towards his peers in
settings/times that are unstructured (i.e., transitions, specials). These
behaviors occur when Daniel does not get his way or when he feels
threatened or embarrassed. Daniel seeks revenge on peers who
may instigate with him. Daniel will name call or threaten in response
to those who do the same to him. He has become physically
aggressive towards peers and adults but on a very rare occasion.
HOW CAN WE RE-WRITE THIS TO BE A MEASURABLE OBSERVABLE TARGET
BEHAVIOR?
HOW ABOUT THIS….
•
Daniel yells at peers during transitions within the class.
OR
•
Daniel hits peers when in Gym, Art and Music.
OR
•
Daniel hangs his body over his desk during times when being seated
is expected.
TARGET BEHAVIOR SAMPLE
• “Overactivity/Impulsivity – This behavior is defined as difficulty
sitting still in a chair without hanging over, falling, talking during
teacher directed activities, running around the classroom,
touching objects after given reminders not to do so, lack of
safety awareness on the classroom
• Inattention – This behavior is defined as difficulty keeping eye
contact with the teacher, responding to simple questions,
following directions during learning activities. Again this
behavior occurs throughout the day and Bill receives at least
10-15 reminders a day to keep his eyes on the story being
read, to refrain from talking when a teacher is talking, and to
follow simple one-step directions without needing teacher
support in the way of physical proximity and redirection”
HOW CAN WE RE-WRITE THIS TO BE A MEASURABLE OBSERVABLE
TARGET BEHAVIOR?
HOW ABOUT THIS….
•
Bill talks during teacher directed activities.
OR
•
Bill runs about the room during teacher directed activities.
OR
•
Bill takes objects from other student’s desks without their permission.
Test It
• Test your operational definition:
o Can you count the number of times that the behavior occurs in a
specified time period, the duration of a behavior, etc.?
• Your answer should be yes!
o Will a “stranger” know exactly what to look for when you tell
him/her the target behavior you are trying to modify? Can you
actually see the child performing the behavior when it occurs?
• Your answer should be yes!
Target Behavior Library
• There is no true sample library of target behaviors
because each target behavior must be situation
specific and individualized for each student.
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR
Replacement Behavior “buys time” while you build greater competency; it is
not necessarily the behavioral “end point” where you want to be.
The Replacement Behavior must serve the same FUNCTION as the Target
Behavior to be effective.
EXAMPLES OF REPLACEMENT BEHAVIORS
Teach the student to communicate (ex: “I’m done”) to replace throwing
materials to escape difficult work
Teach the student to initiate social interactions (ex: “Play with me”) to replace
teasing peers as a form of attention seeking
Teach the student to remove to a sanctioned area and engage in a sanctioned
alternative activity (ex: go to bean bag and read a book) to replace kicking
adults to escape difficult work
GOAL BASELINE
This is the measure that, once achieved, would indicate the BIP can be
discontinued.
THE GOAL BASELINE IS:
Behavior measure that would indicate discontinuation of BIP (i.e., student
engages in replacement behavior at a rate of 80% of opportunities presented)
EXAMPLES OF GOAL BASELINE
Student demonstrates 0 instances of the target behavior for 10 weeks (where
the target behavior addressed physical aggression towards peers)
Student demonstrates 20% or fewer instances of the target behavior (noncompliance defined as not following a concrete staff directive with one or fewer
prompts) during each observation during academic instruction for 5
consecutive weeks.
The student engages in replacement behavior (defined as requests a break) at a
rate of 80% of opportunities presented.
Let’s Practice
Remember:
o Use observable terms
o Use measurable terms
o Be clear, concise, and complete
Student: Raúl
Background
Age: 8
Grade: 2nd
Scenario
“I ain’t doin’ that!” Raúl yells before he walks out of the classroom.
Mrs. Banks, his teacher, steps into the hallway and says, “Raúl, you
need to cool off then come back inside.” Raúl shrugs and replies,
“Aw, man.” He looks around and begrudgingly walks back into the
classroom. Raúl has received ten office discipline referrals (ODR) in
the past three weeks. Mrs. Banks stated on the ODRs that Raúl is
disrespectful. The Response to Intervention Team has looked at
Raúl’s ODRs to determine what the issue is and which intervention
might prove beneficial.
Questions
1. Identify Mrs. Banks’ definition of Raúl’s target behavior. Is the
definition measurable, observable, and clear, concise, and
complete?
2. What additional information should the Response to Intervention
Team seek from Mrs. Banks when trying to
create a behavioral definition?
Student: Tiffany
Background
Age: 4
Grade: Preschool
Scenario
A preschool teacher consults with the principal about a new student,
Tiffany. Ms. Leigh tells the principal that Tiffany has temper tantrums and
gets out of control in the classroom. The principal states that she will
convene a team consisting of herself, Ms. Leigh, the behavior specialist,
and the school counselor. Ms. Leigh agrees to write a definition of the
target behavior for the team to review. She gets back to her classroom
and finds it much more difficult to specifically say what Tiffany does. She
is puzzled about how difficult it is. She has seen these temper tantrums
every day twice a day for the past two weeks! Why can’t she write
about it? She provides the following definition to the team the next day:
Tiffany engages in temper tantrums during transition time prior to large
group activities. She is not aggressive toward other children, only adults
in the classroom.
Questions
1. What elements of an operational definition are not included in
Ms. Leigh’s definition?
2.
Is it possible to write an operational definition? Explain why or
why not?
Student: Felicia
Background
Age: 10
Grade: 5th
Scenario
Mr. Brown has had it with Felicia! He completed the paperwork to refer her to
the school’s Response to Intervention team a few weeks ago, and he finally has
a meeting with the team this afternoon. He cannot wait to find out what he can
do to get Felicia back under control in his class. The meeting starts promptly
after school. Asked to explain Felicia’s problems, Mr. Brown says, “I can’t get her
to do anything! She won’t be quiet during my lesson. During independent work,
she won’t do her work. Instead, she looks out the window. She can’t read on
grade level.” A team member asks Mr. Brown what he would like for Felicia to
do instead. He ponders this for a moment then responds, “I would like for her to
be on-task and perform on grade level.”
Questions
1. List the three target behaviors that Mr. Brown identified for Felicia.
Explain why you think each of these definitions is sufficient or
insufficient.
2. List the two desired behaviors that Mr. Brown identified for Felicia. Explain
why you think each of these definitions is sufficient or insufficient.
3. Choose one of the target behaviors Mr. Brown refers to and rewrite its
definition to make it an operational definition.
Student: Tony
Background
Age: 16
Grade: 11th
Scenario
Tony’s behavior has warranted a functional behavioral assessment. The social
worker interviews two of Tony’s general education teachers to find out more
about his inappropriate behavior. The social worker starts by asking Tony’s
literature teacher why she referred him to the office. “He was late for class three
times this week and didn’t have his homework,” she exclaimed. The social
worker probes further, asking, “How late was he?” The teacher responds, “The
tardy bell was ringing as he walked into the room. We had to wait on him to get
out his notebook and pencil before we could start class.” Tony’s geometry
teacher offered a similar reason for sending him to the office: “He was tardy
every day this week. I was tired of it today and said something to him about it.
Tony snapped and went off on me in front of the class. He’s been coming in
about 5 minutes after the bell rings. He sits right down and then has the nerve to
ask me to borrow a pencil or paper, like he didn’t do anything wrong.”
1.
2.
Questions
Is there sufficient information from the teachers to create an operational
definition for all the behaviors mentioned? Explain why or why not.
Combine the information gathered from both teachers to create an
operational definition for one of Tony’s inappropriate behaviors.
Student: Stephanie
Background
Age: 9
Grade: 4th
Scenario
Ms. Morton, Stephanie’s resource teacher, has just returned to her room
after a conference with Stephanie’s general education teachers. She’s
looking over her notes from the meeting and wonders how she will ever
be able to address all of the issues that the other teachers raised.
Defiant, disrespectful, off-task—she heard these things over and over
from the teachers. Yet Stephanie has never acted this way with Ms.
Morton. Ms. Morton decides to ask the teachers for some more
examples of Stephanie’s behaviors. Ms. Morton sends the teachers a
note stating, “Please describe and count Stephanie’s inappropriate
behaviors this week so I can better understand the problem.” On Friday
afternoon, she receives the following lists from the teachers.
MRS. TAYLOR - MATH
Mrs. Gonzalez - Science
*Talked back to me (4 times)
*Staring out the window (18 times)
*Didn’t listen (13 times)
*Writing notes to friends (4 times)
*Tried to make me mad (8 times)
*Blatant disregard for my
*Didn’t do her work when asked (10 times)
authority (20 times)
MR. ALFORD - SOCIAL STUDIES
*Getting out of seat to sharpen
pencil w/out permission (3 times)
*Teased other students, even after told to stop (1 time)
*Yelling in the library (2 times)
*Called me by my first name (3 times)
*Rolled her eyes when corrected (2 times)
*Started her work three or more minutes after being told to begin (9 times)
Student: Stephanie
Background
Age: 9
Grade: 4th
Question
1. Using the information gathered from all teachers, create an
operational definition for each problem behavior mentioned by
Stephanie’s general education teachers:
a. Defiant
b. Disrespectful
c. Off-task
Mrs. Gonzalez - Science
.
MRS. TAYLOR - MATH
*Staring out the window (18 times)
*Talked back to me (4 times)
*Writing notes to friends (4 times)
*Didn’t listen (13 times)
*Didn’t do her work when asked (10 times)
*Tried to make me mad (8 times)
*Blatant disregard for my
MR. ALFORD - SOCIAL STUDIES
authority (20 times)
*Getting out of seat to sharpen
pencil w/out permission (3 times)
*Teased other students, even after told to stop (1 time)
*Yelling in the library (2 times)
*Called me by my first name (3 times)
*Rolled her eyes when corrected (2 times)
*Started her work three or more minutes after being told to begin (9 times)
District FBA/BIP
website link
http://acsd-fba-bip.weebly.com/
Questions

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