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Report
Veterinary Virology
 Clinical presentation
 Diagnosis
 Molecular characteristics
 Treatment
 Disease control
Lilly – 8 week old beagle x spaniel
Diagnostic tests
Canine parvovirus
 ssDNA virus, 5000 nucleotides
 Non enveloped
 Discovered in late 1970s
 Replicates in rapidly dividing
cells
 intestinal cells - enteritis
 lymphoid cells - panleukopaenia
Treatment of canine parvovirus
 IVFT




Antibiotics
Analgesia
Gastroprotectants
Anti-emetics
Prevention
 Vaccination
 Parvovirus
 Canine adenovirus 1+2
 Distemper
 Parainfluenza virus
 (Leptospirosis)
 (Coronavirus)
 (Rabies)
 Isolation – strict biosecurity
Bobby, 2 year old MN rabbit
Myxomatosis
Classic clinical signs
• Swelling of eyelids with ocular discharge
• Swellings around nose and base of ear
• Swollen genitalia
• Very lethargic and inappatent
Virus characteristics
 Pox virus, ‘myxoma virus’
 Enveloped, dsDNA, 162,000nt genome
 Avoids recognition by immune system
- produce proteins that mimic host
cell receptors and cytokines
 Discovered in 1896, Uruguay
 Benign infection in South American
rabbits, but fatal disease in European
rabbit Oryctalagus cuniculus
Treatment and control
• No known treatment.
95% die of infection
within a few days
• Vaccination
• Every 6 months
• Viral haemorrhagic
disease virus
Hill Farm, 60 head beef cattle, 400 sheep
Foot and Mouth virus (FMDV)
• Picornavirus
• +ve ssRNA, non enveloped, 8.4Kbp genome
• Transmitted by direct contact, fomites and
aerosol
• Replicates in epithelium at entry site before
inducing viraemia
• Does it kill all hosts?
Control
 Cull
 Strict biosecurity
 Enforced movement
bans / quarantine
 Vaccination?
Litter of kittens, 6 weeks old
‘Cat Flu’ – FCV, FHV and chlamydophila
Feline calicivirus [FCV]
•
ssRNA non enveloped virus
•
Numerous strains
•
Spread by oro/nasal
secretions, direct or fomites
•
Can be acute or persistent
•
Variable clinical signs whilst
shedding
Stomatitis
Feline herpesvirus [FHV]
•
dsDNA enveloped virus
•
Single strain
•
Acute initial infection 24wks, then establishes
latency in up to 90% cases
•
Reactivation can occur after
stress
Treatment and control
 TLC
Vaccination
 Antibiotics
•
FCV
•
FHV
•
Feline panleukopaenia virus
•
Chlamydophila
•
FeLV
 Decongestants
Owner education is important
Harris, ME 5yr old DSH
Investigations
Feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV]
Feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV]
 Retrovirus, ssRNA, 9400 nt
 Identified in 1986
 Transmitted by saliva-blood contact e.g. bites
 Initial viraemia, then only low levels of virus for x
months before immunodeficiency develops
 No recovery from infection occurs but cases can
survive a number of years (similar to HIV)
 2-3% cats in UK have FIV

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