### Exam Style Questions (ESQ)

```EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS
G544: Section A
1. January 2010
Questions (Total Mark 40)
1. State the null hypothesis for your practical project. (3)
2. Describe a method you would use to conduct your practical project. (19)
practical project. (3)
4. Assess the validity of your investigation in measuring the dependent
variable. (6)
5. Outline how you could select a sample which would be representative. (3)
6. What ethical issues would you consider in designing your practical project?
(3)
7. Suggest one idea for possible future research related to your practical
project. (3)
2. June 2011
Questions (Total Mark 40)
1. State the alternative hypothesis for your practical project. (3)
2. Describe a method you would use to conduct your practical
project. (19)
4. a. Explain one strength of the sampling method you would wish
to use in your practical project. (3)
b. Explain one weakness of the sampling method you would
wish to use in your practical project. (3)
5. State an appropriate statistical test to analyse the data you would
collect. Give reasons for your choice. (3)
6. Briefly discuss one ethical issue in relation to your practical
project. (3)
7. Suggest an alternative way of measuring the DV in your practical
project. (3)
3. June 2012
Questions (Total Mark 40)
1. State the alternative hypothesis for your practical project. (3)
2. Describe a method you would use to conduct your practical project.
(19)
3. Outline one strength of using the matched pairs design in your
practical project. (3)
4. a. What does p ≤ 0.05 level of significance mean? (2)
b. If you obtained this level of significance in your practical project,
explain what this would mean in relation to your null hypothesis. (4)
5. Describe an alternative experimental design to using matched pairs
6. Explain how you would deal with one ethical issue in your practical
project. (3)
7. Identify one extraneous variable in your practical project and
suggest how it could be controlled. (3)
4. June 2012
Questions (Total Mark 40)
1. State the aim of your practical project. (3)
2. Describe a method you would use to conduct your practical project. (19)
3. Outline one disadvantage of using observation in your practical project. (3)
4. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the type of data you would collect
5. Describe how you could present the data that would be collected in your
practical project. (3)
6. Explain how you would address one ethical issue in your practical project.
(3)
7. Outline how time sampling could be used in your practical project. (3)
5. June 2014
Psychologists use a range of methods to
collect their data including experiments and
observations. Behaviourists believe that the
subject matter of psychology should be
observable behaviour and experiments can
sometimes include the use of observational
techniques. The presence of others can be
studied experimentally by measuring what
participants are doing rather than what they
are thinking.
You must choose one of the options:
• The effect of presence of others on musical performance.
• The effect of presence of others on sport performance.
• The effect of the presence of others on mathematical skill.
• The effect of the presence of others on acts of kindness.
• The effect of the presence of others on acts of aggressive
behaviour.
• The effect of the presence of others on acts of food choices.
• The effect of the presence of others on face recognition.
• You must use an independent measure design and plan to collect
data which measures observable behaviour. It must be a practical
project that could be conducted.
Questions (Total Mark 40)
1. State the null hypothesis for your practical project. (3)
2. Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical
project. (19)
3. Outline one advantage of using the experimental method in your
practical project. (3)
4.
b. Explain one weakness of using the independent measures design
5. State and appropriate inferential statistical test to analyse the data
that would be collected in your practical project. Give reasons for
6. Briefly discuss one practical issue in relation to your practical project.
(3)
7. Suggest an alternative way of manipulating the independent variable
Section B
Section B
a. Briefly outline the observational method in
psychology. (4)
b. Describe two pieces of psychological research that
uses the observational method. (8)
c. Discuss the strengths and limitations of conducting
research using the observational method. (12)
d. Compare the observational method with the case
study method. (8)
e. Discuss the extent to which the observational method
is scientific. (8)
Test Yourself: Experiments
1. Outline one strength and one weakness of using the
experimental method in this experiment (6 marks)
2. Outline one strength and one weakness of using a
repeated measures design method in this experiment
(6 marks)
3. Outline one strength and one weakness of using an
independent groups design method in this
experiment (6 marks)
4. Outline one strength and one weakness of using a
matched participants design method in this
experiment (6 marks)
Test Yourself: Observations
1. Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting
observational research in this study (6 marks).
2. Explain the difference between time sampling and
event sampling in observational research (4 marks)
3. Explain the difference between covert and overt
observations (4 marks).
4. Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting
a covert observation in this study (6 marks).
5. Outline one strength and one weakness of conducting
a overt observation in this study (6 marks).
Test Yourself
Ethical Issues
1. Outline two ethical issues that this study raises (4 marks).
2. Outline how one of the ethical issues you have identified could have been dealt
with (2 marks).
Reliability & Validity
3. Evaluate the reliability and validity of the way the DV has been measured in this
study (10 marks)
4. Outline one issue relating to ecological validity in this investigation and discuss
the possible effects of this on the validity of the study (6 marks).
5. Evaluate the ecological validity of the proposed investigation (6 marks)
Hypothesis
6. Suggest an appropriate alternative hypothesis for this experiment (4 marks).
7. Suggest an operationalised alternative hypothesis for this experiment (6 marks).
8. Suggest an appropriate null hypothesis for this study (4 marks).
Test Yourself: Variables
1. Identify the IV in this experiment (2 marks).
2. Explain how the IV was operationalised in this
experiment (4 marks).
3. Identify the DV in this experiment (2 marks).
4. Explain how the DV was operationalised in this
experiment (4 marks).
5. Explain how the IV was manipulated in this
study (6 marks).
6. Explain how the DV was measured and how the
results were obtained in this study (6 marks).
Test Yourself
Sampling
1. Suggest an appropriate sampling method that could be
used in this study and explain your choice (4 marks).
2. Identify one strength and one weakness of the sample
selection method outlined (4 marks).
Procedures
1. Describe and evaluate an appropriate procedure that
could be used in this study (10 marks).
2. Describe and evaluate one way in which ‘x’ could be
measured in this investigation (10 marks)
3. Describe and evaluate an appropriate sampling technique
for this study (10 marks).
Test Yourself: Data Analysis
Data Analysis
1. Explain what is meant by the descriptive statistics the ‘mean’ (2 marks).
2. Explain how the mean would have been calculated for participants in each
condition in this study (4 marks).
3. When would the descriptive statistics called the ‘median’ be more appropriate
and why? (4 marks)
4. Explain what is meant by the descriptive statistics the ‘mode’ (2 marks).
5. Explain how the mode would have been calculated for participants in each
condition in this study (4 marks).
6. When would the descriptive statistics called the ‘mean’ be more appropriate and
why? (4 marks)
7. Explain what is meant by the descriptive statistics the ‘median’ (2 marks).
8. Explain how the median would have been calculated for the participants in each
condition in study (4 marks).
9. When would the descriptive statistics called the ‘mode’ be more appropriate and
why? (4 marks)
10. Identify and explain the level of data being collected (3 marks).
Test Yourself: Data Analysis
Data Analysis
11. What does standard deviation tell us about the data (3 marks).
12. What does range tell us about the data (3 marks).
13. Draw a suitably labelled visual diagram to depict the findings of this research (4 marks)
14. Give one conclusion that can be drawn for your visual diagram (3 marks)
15. Explain what ‘significance at probability of
– P = <0.01 means
– P = <0.05 means
– P = <0.10 means
16. Explain whether the psychological should retain the null hypothesis or not (3 marks).
17. Which is an appropriate statistical test that should be used to analyse the findings? (3 marks)
18. Which level of significance do you think should be used to analyse the significance of the findings
and why? (3 marks)
19. If the psychologist sets the level of significance a p=<0.01, is she more likely to make a type-1 or
20. Make two suggestions as to which variables, other than the IV, might affect the results (4 marks).
21. Explain how the researcher could control one of the variables you have identified (3 marks).
Test Yourself: Design
Designing a practical project: Experiments
• Construct a research question for your practical project (3 marks)
• State a one-tailed alternative hypothesis for your practical project (3 marks)
• State a two-tailed alternative hypothesis for your practical project (3 marks)
• State a null hypothesis for your practical project (3 marks)
• Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project (13+6 marks).
• Assess the validity of your design in term of the measurement of the DV (3 marks).
• Outline how you might have selected a sample that would have been more
representative (3 marks).
• What ethical issues would you consider in designing your practical project (3 marks).
• Suggest one idea for possible future research related to your practical project (3 marks).
Test Yourself: Design
Designing a practical project: Observations
• Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project
(13+6 marks).
• Explain the difference between a covert and overt observation and outline
a strength of using an overt observation in your practical project (3 marks).
• Outline one strength and one weakness of time sampling in the context of
• What ethical issues would you consider in designing your practical
project? (3 marks).
• Outline one improvement that you could make to your study (3 marks).
Are these significant?
Don’t forget, if they are significant, you reject your null hypothesis and accept the
alternative one; if they aren’t, you retain the null and reject the alternative.
Using Spearman’s rho
•
•
•
the observed value of rho is 0.33, N = 20, with a one tailed hypothesis
the observed value of rho is 0.13, N = 12, with a two tailed hypothesis
the observed value of rho is - 0.81, N = 30, with a one tailed hypothesis
Using Chi square
•
•
•
the observed value of chi is 1.65, df = 3, with a two tailed test
the observed value of chi is 6.35, df = 1, with a one tailed test
the observed value of chi is 9.49, df = 2, with a two tailed test
Are these significant?
Don’t forget, if they are significant, you reject your null hypothesis and accept the
alternative one; if they aren’t, you retain the null and reject the alternative.
Using Mann Whitney
•
•
•
the observed value of U is 18.3, N1 = 8 and N2 =10, with a one tailed test
the observed value of U is 38.73, N1 = 12 and N2 =12, with a two tailed test
the observed value of U is 3.43, N1 = 5 and N2 =8, with a one tailed test
Using Wilcoxon T
•
•
•
the observed value of T is 14.5, N = 20, with a two tailed test
the observed value of T is 23.5, N = 12, with a one tailed test
the observed value of T is 4.39, N = 10, with a two tailed test
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