Knowledge Management using Social Media: A Comparative Study

Report
1
IS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN
DECLINE? HOW VARIOUS SOCIAL MEDIA
(FACEBOOK, BLOG, AND WIKI) CAN
SUPPORT KM IN LEARNING?
CHU, Samuel Kai Wah, Associate Professor
Head, Division of Information and Technology Studies
Deputy Director, Centre for Information Technology in Education
Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
2
Is Knowledge Management (KM) in decline?
• Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises (MAKE) Awards
• KM in Hong Kong
• Dr Bonnie Cheuk's experience and observation
3
Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises
(MAKE) Awards
• Commenced in 1998 (makeawards.com, 2014)
• Leaders in transforming individual and enterprise knowledge into
shareholder value
• Eight criteria to evaluate the nominee that involves many factors like
knowledge-oriented culture, leadership, knowledge intensive
products, services, and solutions, intellectual capital maximization,
knowledge sharing environment, organizational learning, customer
knowledge, and value creation (makeawards.com, 2014)
• MAKE company who has satisfactory knowledge management
performance always have outstanding financial and business
performance (makeawards.com, 2014)
4
MAKE awards across the globe
Global MAKE
Asian MAKE
Amazon.com
Apple
General Electric
Google Inc
Hewlett-Packard
IBM
Microsoft
Honda Motor Co Ltd
Infosys Limited
POSCO
Vale S.A.
China Merchants Securities Co., Ltd.
LG Electronics
Singapore Airlines
European MAKE
Hong Kong MAKE
Hong Kong Police Force
Pfizer Corporation
Cafe de Coral Holdings Limited
Hutchison Telecommunications Hong
Kong Holdings Limited
MTR Corporation Limited
P&G
BP PLC
BMW
Ericsson
Koninklijke Philips NV
Novartis
Royal Dutch Shell
Siemens
5
MAKE awards in recent years
HK MAKE AWARD (2008-2014)
China MAKE (started 2-3 years ago)
Listed companies from 2008 to 2014:
Tsingtao
Baosteel
China Merchants Bank
Tianhua
Ernst and Young
GP Batteries International Limited
MTR Corporation Limited
Hutchison Telecommunications Hong Kong Holdings Ltd
Pfizer Corporation Hong Kong Ltd
Cafe de Coral Holdings Limited
ERM - Hong Kong, Limited
Orient Overseas Container Line Ltd
Adidas Sourcing Ltd
Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd
Non-Listed companies: 2008 to 2014:
Arup Hong Kong
Hong Kong Police Force
The Hong Kong and China Gas Co. Ltd.
CCC Heep Woh College
Ernst & Young, Hong Kong
Member of the Judging Panel of the 2009, 2011 & 2014 Hong Kong Most
Admired Knowledge Enterprise Award – Sam Chu
6
Companies value KM awards
7
Development of KM in Hong Kong
• Started with consulting firms
• Then with corporations, government departments, & NGO
(non-governmental organization)
• In recent years, with education
• 1st major KM in Education seminar held by the Knowledge
Management Research Center in 2011
• 1st PhD thesis on KM in school education – Implementing
knowledge management in school environment : a principal's
leadership-driven approach, by Chu Kai Wing in 2013 at HKU
• Education Bureau begins to apply KM
8
Bonnie Cheuk's experience
& observation - 1
Source: http://bonniecheuk.blogspot.tw/
9
Bonnie Cheuk's experience & observation - 2
10
Bonnie Cheuk's experience & observation - 3
Source: http://www.erm.com/en/Analysis-and-Insight/Publications/Publications-Archive-2009--2010/Using-Minerva-to-Create-Health--Safety-Success/
Source:
http://collaboration2013.weconect.com/en/preview/spea
kers/speakers-overview/
11
Bonnie Cheuk's experience & observation - 4
Bonnie won the Environmental Business Journal
Award for Organizational Innovation (2008) and
Neilson's Top 10 Best Intranet Award 2009 for ERM,
the world's largest environmental consulting firm http://collaboration2013.weconect.com/en/preview/speakers/speakers-overview/
12
References
• makeaward.com. (2014). Introduction. Retrieved October
20, 2014, from http://www.makeaward.com/intro.php
• makeaward.com. (2014). Assessment Criteria. Retrieved
October 20, 2014, from
http://www.makeaward.com/ac.php
13
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT USING
SOCIAL MEDIA:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN
BLOGS AND FACEBOOK
CHU, Samuel Kai Wah, Associate Professor
Ng, Ka Wan, former HKU MScLIM student
Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
14
INTRODUCTION - 1
• Social media is defined as “a group of internet-based
application that build on the ideological and technological
foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and
exchange of user generated content” (Kaplan & Haenlein,
2010, p. 61)
• Examples of social media include blogs, social networking
sites, wikis, video and photo-sharing sites, etc.
• Social media has recently emerged as a promising
technology for knowledge management (KM) (Levy, 2009;
Yates & Paquette, 2011).
15
LITERATURE REVIEW - 1
An Integrated KM Cycle (Dalkir, 2011)
16
LITERATURE REVIEW - 2
• Blogging was found to be a good learning tools for
internship by facilitating information and knowledge
sharing (Chu, Kwan & Warning 2012)
• Receiving emotional support and feedbacks from both
teachers and peers are important to student internship
experiences (Murray-Harvey, 2001)
17
LITERATURE GAP
• Unsure about the effects of using Facebook as the
communication tool during students’ internship
• Very few studies, if any, have focused on comparing blogs
and Facebook in terms of their effectiveness in facilitating
knowledge management and cultivating a knowledge
sharing culture during internship.
18
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• Purpose: To examine the incorporation of Blogs and
Facebook into internship of two groups of students over
six cohorts: 3 years of Blogs intern users (n=47) and 3
years of Facebook intern users (n=64).
• Research questions:
• How do student users use Blogs and Facebook for knowledge
management?
• Is Blogs or Facebook a better tool in facilitating knowledge
management activities?
• Is Blogs or Facebook a better tool in cultivating a knowledge
sharing culture?
19
RESEARCH METHODS
• Mixed research method
• Qualitative data
• Content analysis of blog/Facebook posts
• Interviews
• Quantitative data
• Questionnaire on participants’ perceptions
20
PARTICIPANTS
• The study involved two groups of students (n=111) from
the Bachelor
program.
of
Information
Management
(BScIM)
• They were asked to document their knowledge and
experience gained during their internship (2-3 months)
• Group 1 (n=47) used blogs (Xanga, Blogger, Drupal and
YouBlog)
• 2006-2008
• Group 2 (n=64) used Facebook
• 2011-2013
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INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
• A blog site or a Facebook private group page was set up
and made accessible to only the participating students
and course lecturers.
• Students were asked to reflect and share their internship
experience on the online platform every one to two days.
• They were also told to post a minimum of one to two
comments to their peers’ logs every week.
• For both groups of students, their engagement in the
corresponding online platform constitutes to part of their
final grade of the course.
22
DATA COLLECTION - 1
• Content analysis
• The blog entries, posts and comments were extracted from the
online blogging system and Facebook at the end of each internship
period.
• Questionnaire
• Prompts users’ perceptions of blogs/Facebook for mutual support
and collaboration
• Structured telephone interviews
• Investigate users’ perception of blogs/Facebook as a knowledge
management tool
23
DATA ANALYSIS - 1
• The content of the students’ blogs and Facebook was
analyzed qualitatively using NVivo 10 software.
• Each blog entry, Facebook post or comment was considered as a
unit of analysis.
• The coding framework was developed from the preliminary coding.
• The content was first classified into either knowledge management
processes or socio-emotional expressions.
24
DATA ANALYSIS - 2
Table 1 Coding framework of knowledge management processes
Theme
Definition
Sample reference
Knowledge capture
Knowledge
reflection
From the reference materials, I have learnt new thing besides the questions’ design. What I learnt
reflections on or discoveries of knowledge this time is “Coding” for questionnaire. Assigning codes for the answers of questionnaire can
related to professional practices
simplify the process of analyzing respondent’s responses. It is because we cab simply input the
code of answer of each question into the computer.
Experience
capture
personal insights into the meaning and During the meeting with client, I learnt more about the relationship between online payment
implications of professional
and card industry. I realized that transaction done through virtual environment is similar to
experiences
face to face transaction. The only different is the channel.
Knowledge sharing and dissemination
Knowledge
sharing
sharing, disseminating or exchanging of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited is one of the frequently used website for retrieving
ideas and knowledge among the
information for intranet profiling of listed companies reports. Stock code search can be found in
individuals
Advanced Search Options
Posting
questions
questions that facilitate communication
I also think of that but I don’t know which database would be useful. Do you have any suggestion?
and discussion among users
Providing
feedback
responses to another post that
contribute to knowledge building or
sharing
A student talked about the function of “linear regression” of SPSS in the reflective posting, a
participant replied: I think this function is much complicated than the functions I have used before.
When running the Linear Regression, I need to enter quite a lot of dependent and independent
variables to the syntax. This step should be very careful done to prevent the loss of any variables.
Otherwise, the results will be different and incorrect.
Knowledge acquisition and application
discussion and co-construction on the
Knowledge
understanding of a topic or knowledge
construction
area
Problem
solving
A: In the school library in my secondary school, popular titles , such as Chinese fiction series would
adopted “double packing” , but it only used when there were not enough space. Therefore, the
location of the doubled-packed books were flexible.
B: For government gazettes, “double packing” is very useful since the title will be updated at least
once a week. This practice really serves a lot of spaces.
experience of applying knowledge in Although the search functions in MS ACCESS were not user-friendly, a user could still search
solving the problems encountered in the specific panel. We designed a large range of keyword tables that easily hit the data entry.
professional practice
Therefore, we successfully increased the search results.
25
DATA ANALYSIS - 3
Table 2 Coding framework of socio-emotional expressions
Theme
Definition
Sample references
Emotional expressions
Positive emotions
pleasurable affective
expressions including joy,
happiness, gratitude and
contentment
I am so happy that everything is on schedule, and I had been
involved in several projects and process already, it’s really
enhance my experience.
Negative emotions
unpleasurable affective
expressions including
distress, anxiety,
depression and anger
Sometimes, I would be sad after listening to these kind of call. It
seemed that the questions I have asked irritate the patients and
made them upset.
assistance and resource
that individuals provide to
others through social
relationships
Do take care of yourself and don't let the internship ruin your
health.
Social support
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DATA ANALYSIS - 4
Source: Chu, S.K.W., Chan, C.K.K., & Tiwari, A.F.Y. (2012). Using blogs to support
learning during internship. Computers & Education, 58(3), 989-1000.
27
DATA ANALYSIS - 5
28
DATA ANALYSIS - 6
• The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version
20.0.
• Responses on the Likert-type scales were summarized
and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
• Mann–Whitney tests were employed to compare the
perceptual differences between blog and Facebook users.
Statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05.
29
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - 1
Knowledge management activities on blogs and Facebook
Table 3 Distribution of coded blogs and posts in the theme of knowledge management processes
Blogs (n=47)
Mean
Facebook (n=64)
Mean
8.04
12.80
Knowledge reflection
4.40
4.89
Experience capture
3.64
7.91
7.68
14.94
Information sharing
2.38
3.72
Posting questions
1.81
3.05
Providing feedback
3.36
8.17
0.64
0.95
Knowledge construction
0.13
0.25
Problem solving
0.51
0.70
Knowledge capture
Knowledge sharing and dissemination
Knowledge acquisition and application
Note: The figures represent the average number of Blog entries/Facebook posts each participant contributed.
Knowledge capture
The popularity and user-friendly interface of Facebook, as identified by a participant (HTH), were the key factors that
facilitate its users to elicit tacit knowledge, and allowed it to overtake blogs in instant and quick knowledge capture.
Knowledge sharing and dissemination
As noted by one of the participants (WCM), “when you posted anything in the group, everyone can view it. With
notifications users can read the most updated comments from their friends easily and immediately. Hence, it helps
facilitate knowledge sharing.”
30
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - 2
Socio-emotional expressions on blogs and Facebook
Table 4 Distribution of coded blogs and posts in the theme of socio-emotional expressions
Blogs (n=47)
Facebook (n=64)
14.51
9.50
Positive emotions
10.49
7.02
Negative emotions
4.02
2.48
5.09
3.56
Emotional expressions
Social support
Note: The figures represent the average number of Blog entries/Facebook posts each participant contributed.
31
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - 3
Perception of social support via blogging and Facebook
Table 5 Students’ overall rating on the use of Blogs and Facebook
Notes: Ratings are based on a 4-point Likert-type scale: 1-‘Strongly disagree’, 2-‘Disagree’, 3-‘Agree’, and 4-‘Strongly
agree’ (With a mid-point of 2.5). *statistically significant at p < 0.05.
32
REFERENCES
• Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. England,
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Ferdig, R. E. & Trammell, K. D. (2004). Content delivery in the 'Blogosphere'.
Technological Horizons in Education Journal, 31, 7. Retrieved from
http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/articleprintversion.cfm?aid=4677
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges
and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Levy, M. (2009). Web 2.0 implications on knowledge management. Journal of
Knowledge Management, 13(1), 120-134.
Ojala, M. (2005). Blogging for knowledge sharing, management and
dissemination. Business Information Review, 22, 269–276.
Wiig, K. (1997). “Knowledge Management: Where Did it Come From and Where
Will It Go?”, Expert Systems with Applications, Special Issues on Knowledge
Management, 13(1), 1-14.
Wong, K., Kwan, R. & Leung, K. (2011). An Exploration of Using Facebook to
Build a Virtual Community of Practice. Proceedings of the 4th International
Conference, ICHL 2011 (pp. 316-324), Hong Kong, China.
Yates, D. & Paquette, S. (2011). Emergency Knowledge Management and Social
Media Technologies: A Case Study of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake. International
Journal of Information Management, 31(1), 6-13.
33
HOW CAN WIKI FACILITATE KM IN
STUDENTS’ GROUP PROJECT LEARNING?
CHU, Samuel Kai Wah, Associate Professor
Yu, Kai Cheng, HKU student
Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
34
PARTICIPANTS
• Students
in 3 education levels, (total N = 801),
participated in a survey
• Group 1 386 primary school students
• Group 2 347 secondary school students
• Group 3 67 university school students
• They were asked to answer a questionnaire including five
criteria after their project completion with aid of wiki tools.
• Learning 4-6 questions
• Motivation 4-6 questions
• Group Interaction 4-6 questions
• Technology 4-6 questions
• Knowledge management ( 0 for primary, 3 for secondary and 6 for
university)
35
QUESTIONNAIRE-University Student -1
Sample Size N = 67 (for all questions)
Likert Scale: 1 Strongly Disagree to 5 Strongly Agree
Learning
Mean(SD)
Motivation
Mean(SD)
• Use of the Google sites enhanced my interest in the
course.
• I would like to see Google sites used in other
courses.
• I will retain more material as a result of using the
Google sites.
• I participated in the assignment more because of
using the Google sites.
• Use of the Google sites aided me in achieving
course objectives.
3.07± (0.84)
• Benefit of using the Google sites is worth the extra
effort & time required to learn it.
• I would recommend classes that use the Google
sites to other students.
• I would prefer classes that use Google sites over
other classes that do not use Google sites.
• I will continue to explore use of Google sites for
education.
• I stayed on the task more because of using the
Google sites.
3.30± (0.76)
Group Interaction
Mean(SD)
Technology
Mean(SD)
• I liked seeing other students’ interactions with
material I posted in the Google sites.
• Use of the Google sites for the assignment helped
me interact more with students.
• Because of using the Google sites, my group was
able to come to a consensus fast
• I learned more because of information posted by
other students’ in the Google sites.
• Use of the Google sites promoted collaborative
learning.
3.34± (0.93)
• The Google sites interface and features were
overall easy to understand.
• Benefits of using the Google sites outweighed any
technical challenges of its use.
• Browsing / editing information in the Google sites
was easy.
• Compared to Moodle’s / WebCT’s discussion
board, the Google sites was easier to use.
• Technical features in the Google sites helped
enhance my learning.
3.37± (0.76)
3.13± (0.99)
3.43± (0.74)
3.03± (0.99)
3.24± (0.91)
3.25± (0.86)
3.24± (0.85)
3.27± (0.78)
3.43± (0.73)
3.12± (0.78)
2.84± (0.84)
3.16± (0.81)
3.14± (0.90)
3.21± (0.82)
3.38± (0.98)
3.19± (1.00)
3.07± (0.94)
36
QUESTIONNAIRE-University Student -2
Sample Size N = 67 (for all questions)
Likert Scale: 1 Strongly Disagree to 5 Strongly Agree
Knowledge Management
Mean(SD)
• Google sites is an enabling tool for knowledge creation (e.g. development of
new knowledge and innovations that did not exist before)
• Google sites as an enabling tool for knowledge capturing (i.e. saving and
publishing knowledge by using an easy-to-use publishing tool that allows text
editing, adding multimedia files, building links and organizing with tags).
• Google sites is an enabling tool for knowledge sharing.
• Google sites is an enabling tool for knowledge dissemination (e.g. broadcasting
it to a larger population).
• Google sites is an enabling tool for knowledge acquisition (i.e. learning new
knowledge).
• Google sites is an enabling tool for knowledge application (i.e. applying
knowledge gained from working on the course projects to another context).
3.61 ± (0.63)
3.23 ± (0.81)
3.36 ± (0.74)
3.54 ± (0.72)
3.40 ± (0.65)
3.42 ± (0.73)
37
Primary Level – Google Sites
38
Secondary Level - PBWorks
39
University- WikiBooks
40
DATA ANALYSIS - 1
• The data from the survey was analyzed using SPSS
v.22.0.
• Overall comparison between 3 education levels
• Use mean of all questions in one criteria as statistics
• Overall scale is from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)
• Primary school question scale 1 – 5.
• Secondary school question scale 1 – 5.
• University question scale 1 – 7 , rescale each question by 5/7.
• One sample t-test on each criteria with confidence interval (i.e. CI )
• Assumptions using t-test: sample is large ( n > 30 ).
• Shows in column chart with mean value and CI displayed.
Note:
confidence interval calculated from the given sample set. It is an estimated range of plausible values of the true
value, or the true mean of the population. A 95% CI means that there is a 95% probability that one will find the true
value in the estimated range. The width of the CI indicates the reliability of the estimation. A narrower CI indicates
more reliable result than a wider CI (Dalgaard, 2002).
41
DATA ANALYSIS – 2
• Knowledge Management construct
• Only involve secondary school and university
• One sample t-test on 3 common questionnaire questions
• Knowledge creation
• Knowledge sharing
• Knowledge dissemination
• Independent sample t-test on these 3 question to see if there’s a
difference between the 2 groups
• Set the significant level p<0.05
• Compare the means between two groups, secondary and university
42
RESULT Overall Comparison
Graph notation:
Y-Axis: (Likert Scale) 1 (Strongly disagree) – 5 (Strongly agree)
Red line: stands as neutral.
Motivation
Group
Interaction
Technology
Likert Scale
Learning
95% CI: 95% probability that one will find the true value in the estimated range.
KM
43
RESULT KM Impact Comparison
Graph notation:
Y-Axis: (Likert Scale) 1 (Strongly disagree) – 5 (Strongly agree)
Red line: stands as neutral.
Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge Transferring
Likert Scale
Knowledge Creation
95% CI: 95% probability that one will find the true value in the estimated range.
44
RESULT University Level
Graph notation:
Y-Axis: (Likert Scale) 1 (Strongly disagree) – 5 (Strongly agree)
Knowledge creation
A process which results in non-existing
knowledge. (Hari, S., Egbu, C., Kumar,
B. ,2005)
Knowledge capturing
Finding ways to make tacit knowledge
explicit. (Smith, 2000)
,2005)
Knowledge acquisition
A process of acquire existing
knowledge, from knowledge capturing
and creation process. (Gold, Malhotra,
Segars,2001)
Knowledge application
Actual use of knowledge captured or
created in KM cycle.(Dalkir, 2005)
Knowledge transferring
A process of getting a packet of
knowledge from one organization to
another.
(Stuhlman, 2006)
Knowledge sharing
A process of exchange of knowledge.
(Stuhlman, 2006)
95% CI: 95% probability that one will find the true value in the estimated range.
45
Obstacles for using Wiki Tools
Negative comments given by students to TWiki
Negative Comments (No. of Students):
TWiki:
 Difficulty in formatting (5)
 Time consuming to learn to use the editing tools (4)
 Technical problems, e.g. server problem (3)
 Difficult to identify each member's contribution (1)
 Available functions are primitive (1)
From: “Chu, S. (2008). TWiki for knowledge building and management.
Online Information Review, 32(6): 745-758.”
46
References
• Chu, S. (2008). TWiki for knowledge building and management. Online Information Review, 32(6):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
745-758 .
Dalgaard, P. (2002). Introductory Statistics With R. New York: Springer.
Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge Management In Theorey And Practice. Burlington: Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinnemann.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 3rd Edition. London: SAGE.
Hari, S., Egbu, C., Kumar, B. (2005). A knowledge capture awareness tool: An empirical study on
small and medium enterprises in the construction industry. Engineering, Construction and
Architectural Management, 12, 533-567.
Gold, A.H., Malhotra, A., Segars, A.H. (2001). Knowledge Management: An Organizational
Capabilities Perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, Summer, 18(1),
185-214
Smith, L. (2000). Knowledge discovery, capture and creation. Bulletin of the American Society for
Information Science, 26, 11-12.
Stuhlman, D. D. (2006). Knowledge Management Terms. Retrieved Dec 15, 2007 from
http://home.earthlink.net/~ddstuhlman/defin1.htm.

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