PowerPoint Sunusu - Middle East Technical University

Report
A: ¡Hola! ¿Cómo te llamas?
B: Me llamo Canan, y tu?
A: Me llamo Tamay.
B: Mucho gusto.
A: Encantado.
«I am an EFL teacher and I wish I could
know how I should teach speaking more
effectively»
«My business students
are good at giving
presentations, but they
can’t have even the
simplest conversations.
How can I help them
improve?
«Please help me! I'm
going to teach
speaking for a group
of beginners. This
course will last 16
hours within a month.
I find it hard to
choose an appropriate
course book or
materials for these
learners»
«How can I make my students more fluent? What is fluency?
Is it good pronunciation?»
Learning
a new
language
Using
language to
communicate
in real life
1. Get into groups with the people who have the same
color of lollipops
2. Refer to page 1 of the handout
3. Brainstorm together some possible answers for the
question assigned to your group
4.Take notes to remember what you discussed for the next
stage of the activity
10 minutes
Stage 2
1.
Form groups with people who have different
color of lollipops this time
2.
Take turns to share with the other group
members what you have discussed in your
first group
3.
Take notes to answer the other questions in
your handout
10 minutes
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that
involves producing and receiving and processing information
(Brown,1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997)
Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through
the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts"
(Chaney, 1998, p. 13).
Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce
specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or
vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also they understand when,
why and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic
competence)
(Cunningham,1999).
* Composed of idea units
* May be planned or unplanned
*Employs more vague or generic words than written language
* Employs fixed phrases, fillers, and hesitation markers
* Contains slips and errors
* Involves reciprocity
* Shows variation
Louma, 2004
ACCURACY
FLUENCY
RULES OF
THE GAME
CULTURE
"I often spend hours preparing for my Speaking classes as I
feel far more vulnerable delivering this subject."
B.S. Teacher, UK
"I want to feel I've done more than encourage the students to
have a chat."
S.P. Teacher, Spain
"I'm never sure if the students have actually learnt anything
new at the end of a speaking lesson."
T.B. Teacher, Poland
SO, WHERE
TO BEGIN?
To teach ESL learners to:
* Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
* Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the
rhythm of the second language
* Select appropriate words and sentences according to the
proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter
* Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence
* Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments
* Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural
pauses, which is called as fluency
(Nunan, 2003)
Brown & Yule (1983)
Interactional fuctions
Transactional functions
Richards (2008)
Talk as Interaction
Talk as Transaction
Talk as Performance
FEATURES
* Has a primarily social function
SKILLS NEEDED
* Reflects role relationships
* Opening & closing conversations
* Reflects speaker’s identity
* Choosing topics
* May be formal or casual
* Making small-talk
* Uses conversational
conventions
* Joking
* Reflects degrees of politeness * Recounting personal experiences
* Employs many generic words * Turn-taking
* Uses conversational register * Using adjacency pairs
* Is jointly constructed
* Interrupting
* Reacting to others
* Using an appropriate style
FEATURES
* It has a primarily information focus.
SKILLS NEEDED
* The main focus is on the message. * Explaining a need/intention
* Participants employ communication * Describing something
strategies.
* Asking questions
* There may be frequent questions,
* Asking for clarification
repetitions, and comprehension
* Confirming information
checks.
* Justifying an opinion
* There may be negotiation and
digression.
* Making suggestions
* Linguistic accuracy is not always
* Clarifying understanding
important.
* Making comparisons
* Agreeing and disagreeing
FEATURES
SKILLS NEEDED
* A focus on both message
and audience
* Predictable organization
and sequencing
* Importance of both form
and accuracy
* Language is more like
written language
* Often monologic
* Using an appropriate format
* Presenting information in an
appropriate sequence
* Maintaining audience
engagement
* Using correct pronunciation and
grammar
* Creating an effect on the
audience
* Using appropriate vocabulary
* Using an appropriate opening
and closing
DESIGNING & ASSESSING
SPEAKING TASKS
PRACTICAL
ADAPTIVE
PREDICTIVE
PURPOSEFUL
PRODUCTIVE
Thornbury, 2007
1.
Get together with your group members again
2.
Refer to pages 5-6 of your handout for sample
speaking activities focusing on Transaction
3.
Evaluate the activities based on the 5 Ps
10 minutes
1.
Get together with your group members again
2.
Refer to pages 7-8 of your handout for sample
speaking activities focusing on Performance
3.
Evaluate the activities based on the 5 Ps
10 minutes
* What will the focus of the activity be?
* How will the activity be modelled?
* What stages will the activity be divided into?
* What language support will be needed?
* What resources will be needed?
* What level of performance is expected?
* How and when feedback will be given?
Jack C. Richards
“At the classroom level, materials often seem more
prominent than any other element in the
curriculum. They are, in fact, omnipresent in the
language classroom and it is difficult to imagine a
class without books, pictures, filmstrips, realia,
games and so on. Even the more austere classroom
will have some sort of materials.”
(Nunan, 1988)
* Learners talk a lot.
* Participation is even.
* Motivation is high.
* Language is of
an acceptable level.
Ur(1996)

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