Steps to division part 1

Report
BELLWORK: Document Analysis!
Roosevelt’s Letter to Stalin (pg.14-15)
1. What is the general “tone” of this letter to Stalin?
2. What does this suggest about the relationship between FDR and Stalin?
Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech (pg.21)
3. What is the Iron Curtain? What does it symbolize?
4. In what way does Churchill allude to the idea of “salami tactics” taking
place in Europe?
Stalin’s response to the Iron Curtain speech (pg.23)
5. How did Stalin view Churchill?
6. THINKER: From what you have read so far, whom do you consider to be
the most responsible for the growth of hostility between East and West up
to 1947 – the US or USSR? Explain!
Steps to the Political, Economic, and
Military Division of Europe
Stages 1-5
The Breakdown of the Grand Alliance
• After Germany invaded
the Soviet Union in
June 1941, the US and
Great Britain send aide
 beginning of Grand
Alliance
• Although they sent
aide, Stalin was still
unhappy…..why?
Tehran Conference: November 1943
• Explain the major
decisions made at the
Tehran Conference.
• How did this meeting
increase tensions
between the Big
Three?
Yalta Conference: February 1945
• Explain the major
decisions made at
the Yalta
Conference.
• How did this
meeting increase
tensions between
the Big Three?
How would Germany be ruled?
What other punishments were
implemented against Germany?
Document Analysis: Behind the Scenes
at Yalta
• Read President
Roosevelt’s
letter to Stalin
on pgs. 14-15.
Be ready to
discuss the four
document
questions!
Changes between Yalta & Potsdam
• After FDR’s death, Truman
comes to power and is
tougher on Soviets
• Germany surrendered
unconditionally
• USSR (Red Army) occupied all
of Eastern Europe
• Churchill is replaced with new
PM Clement Atlee
• US tested first atomic bomb
Potsdam Conference: July 1945
• Explain the major
decisions made at
the Potsdam
Conference.
• How did this
meeting increase
tensions between
the Big Three?
Discussion Questions: 1946-1947
• “War is in the making…”
(Truman, 1947)
• How did Stalin gain control of
Europe using “salami tactics?”
• What happened to the “free
elections” promised by Stalin
at Yalta?
• Why did Stalin increase
pressure on Iran?
• Why was the US worried about
Greece and Turkey?
Kennan’s Long
Telegram: 1946
• What was the
point/message
of Kennan’s
Telegram?
• Why did this
increase EastWest tensions?
The Containment Policy
•
•
•
Definition:
– By applying firm diplomatic, economic, and
military counter pressure, the United States
could block Soviet aggression.
– Goal was to stop communism from spreading!
Formulated by George F. Kennan as a way to stop
Soviet expansion without having to go to war.
The Containment Doctrine would later be
expanded in 1949, which called for a dramatic
increase in defense spending
– From $13 billion to $50 billion a year, to be
paid for with a large tax increase.
– served as the framework for American policy
over the next 20 years
National Defense Budget [1940-1964]
Document Analysis: Churchill’s
Iron Curtain Speech
• Read Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s
Iron Curtain Speech and be ready to
discuss! (meaning, Stalin’s response)
***Notice location of
Greece and Turkey:
This will become a key
issue!
The Truman Doctrine: March 1947
• What was the
purpose?
• How did this
increase EastWest tensions?
• US spent a total
of $400 million
on the TD
The Marshall
Plan:
June
1947
In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the
Marshall Plan.
– Massive economic aide for Europe to help it
recover from the damage caused by WWII.
(Total spent = $17 billion)
There were two motives for this:
1. Helping Europe to recover economically would
provide markets for American goods 
benefits US economy and industries
2. A prosperous Europe would be better able to
resist the spread of communism.
Secretary of State
George Marshall.
A poster promoting the
Marshall Plan
The Soviet Union referred to this plan as
Dollar Imperialism. What does this mean?
Do you agree with the Soviet view?
Countries Receiving Marshall Plan Aide
“The Truman
Doctrine and
Marshall Plan are
two halves of the
same walnut”
(Truman)
Other important developments….
• COMECON: Council for Mutual
Economic Assistance
– Centralized agency that linked
Eastern bloc countries to Moscow
– Designed to “stimulate” and control
economic development
• Cominform: Communist
Information Bureau
– Increase Stalin’s control over
communist parties in Europe
– West viewed this as an organization
actively spreading communism
DISCUSSION
• From what you have read so far, whom do you
consider to be the most responsible for the
growth of hostility between East and West up
to 1947 – the US or USSR? Explain!

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