BELLWORK: Document Analysis! Roosevelt’s Letter to Stalin (pg.14-15) 1. What is the general “tone” of this letter to Stalin? 2. What does this suggest about the relationship between FDR and Stalin? Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech (pg.21) 3. What is the Iron Curtain? What does it symbolize? 4. In what way does Churchill allude to the idea of “salami tactics” taking place in Europe? Stalin’s response to the Iron Curtain speech (pg.23) 5. How did Stalin view Churchill? 6. THINKER: From what you have read so far, whom do you consider to be the most responsible for the growth of hostility between East and West up to 1947 – the US or USSR? Explain! Steps to the Political, Economic, and Military Division of Europe Stages 1-5 The Breakdown of the Grand Alliance • After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the US and Great Britain send aide beginning of Grand Alliance • Although they sent aide, Stalin was still unhappy…..why? Tehran Conference: November 1943 • Explain the major decisions made at the Tehran Conference. • How did this meeting increase tensions between the Big Three? Yalta Conference: February 1945 • Explain the major decisions made at the Yalta Conference. • How did this meeting increase tensions between the Big Three? How would Germany be ruled? What other punishments were implemented against Germany? Document Analysis: Behind the Scenes at Yalta • Read President Roosevelt’s letter to Stalin on pgs. 14-15. Be ready to discuss the four document questions! Changes between Yalta & Potsdam • After FDR’s death, Truman comes to power and is tougher on Soviets • Germany surrendered unconditionally • USSR (Red Army) occupied all of Eastern Europe • Churchill is replaced with new PM Clement Atlee • US tested first atomic bomb Potsdam Conference: July 1945 • Explain the major decisions made at the Potsdam Conference. • How did this meeting increase tensions between the Big Three? Discussion Questions: 1946-1947 • “War is in the making…” (Truman, 1947) • How did Stalin gain control of Europe using “salami tactics?” • What happened to the “free elections” promised by Stalin at Yalta? • Why did Stalin increase pressure on Iran? • Why was the US worried about Greece and Turkey? Kennan’s Long Telegram: 1946 • What was the point/message of Kennan’s Telegram? • Why did this increase EastWest tensions? The Containment Policy • • • Definition: – By applying firm diplomatic, economic, and military counter pressure, the United States could block Soviet aggression. – Goal was to stop communism from spreading! Formulated by George F. Kennan as a way to stop Soviet expansion without having to go to war. The Containment Doctrine would later be expanded in 1949, which called for a dramatic increase in defense spending – From $13 billion to $50 billion a year, to be paid for with a large tax increase. – served as the framework for American policy over the next 20 years National Defense Budget [1940-1964] Document Analysis: Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech • Read Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech and be ready to discuss! (meaning, Stalin’s response) ***Notice location of Greece and Turkey: This will become a key issue! The Truman Doctrine: March 1947 • What was the purpose? • How did this increase EastWest tensions? • US spent a total of $400 million on the TD The Marshall Plan: June 1947 In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. – Massive economic aide for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by WWII. (Total spent = $17 billion) There were two motives for this: 1. Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods benefits US economy and industries 2. A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. Secretary of State George Marshall. A poster promoting the Marshall Plan The Soviet Union referred to this plan as Dollar Imperialism. What does this mean? Do you agree with the Soviet view? Countries Receiving Marshall Plan Aide “The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan are two halves of the same walnut” (Truman) Other important developments…. • COMECON: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance – Centralized agency that linked Eastern bloc countries to Moscow – Designed to “stimulate” and control economic development • Cominform: Communist Information Bureau – Increase Stalin’s control over communist parties in Europe – West viewed this as an organization actively spreading communism DISCUSSION • From what you have read so far, whom do you consider to be the most responsible for the growth of hostility between East and West up to 1947 – the US or USSR? Explain!