Rise of Totalitarianism 1919-1939 World History Chapter 13 Postwar Social Changes – WWI shattered the idealism of the turn of the century, that industry and science and democracy would create a world without war. • Changes in Society After WWI • • • • • Mass Culture Improved Telephones Affordable Automobiles Motion Pictures Radio – The Roaring Twenties • After WWI, as Europe recovered, the US experienced a boom time, fueled by jazz and a rejection of Victorian values, and young women experienced freedom not seen before. – Women’s Lives • Women, now armed with voting power, were more emancipated than ever. Labor saving devices like washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and canned foods lightened the burdens of housework, and allowed women more time to do what they wanted. – Reactions to the Jazz Age • • • Not everyone was enamored of the new age, and conservatives banned alcohol in the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution. This did little to stop people from drinking, and soon an explosion of organized crime was delivering alcohol to drinkers in speakeasies. Evangelicals on the radio Evolution vs Creationism (Scopes Trial) The New Literature • A Loss of Faith – The modern world as spiritually barren – Lack of convictions – A lost generation • Literature of the Inner Mind – Streams of consciousness • The Harlem Renaissance – New York city neighborhood where AfricanAmerican artists, writers, musicians, explored new styles, mixing traditional arts with African and African American themes New Scientific Theories • Marie Curie and Radioactivity – Atoms can change and are divisible – X-Ray machine • Einstein's Theory of Relativity – Space and Time relative – not fixed. Questioned Newtonian physics – Enrico Fermi – Splitting the atom (fission) • With Oppenheimer and Teller, made the bomb • Fleming Discovers Penicillin – Non-toxic mold that kills bacteria – Used to developed antibiotics • Freud Probes the Mind – – – – – Austrian psychologist Subconscious Repression and social pressure Developed Psychoanalysis Worked with Carl Jung Modern Art and Architecture • New Directions in Painting – – – – Picasso Cubism Surrealism Abstract • New Styles of Architecture – Frank Lloyd Wright • Buildings where form follows function • Buildings that fit environment – Bauhaus • Modern utilitarian design – inspired by factories Picasso Cubism Surrealism Abstract The Western Democracies Stumble – Western democracies struggled with liberalism and conservatism. Rebuilding Europe after the war was expensive and the deaths of so many young men left a generational gap. • Politics in the Postwar World – Party Struggles in Britain • The Labour party in Britain surpassed the Liberal party, ex liberals joined the Conservative party. Essentially class conflict. – Irish Independence at Last • The “Irish Question” was still to be decided, and thoughts of giving Ireland independence was delayed by WWI. In 1919, the IRA (Irish Republican Army) started it’s attacks on British citizens and their supporters. By 1922, moderates on both sides finally agreed on Irish independence, but split Ireland into North and South. – France’s Troubled Peace • Though France was one of the “winners” of WWI, much of the devastation occurred in France, returning veterans found little work, and scandals continued to rock the government. – “The Red Scare” and Isolationism in the United States • Though the U.S. was relatively unscathed by WWI, unrest and strikes swept the country, and the communist revolution in Russia spurred renters strikes, union registration, and anticapitalist rhetoric. This, along with increased immigration from Eastern Europe brought about a “Red Scare” against communism. Immigration laws were tightened, and some people were deported. Postwar Foreign Policy • Arguing Allies – France was concerned about a resurgent Germany, while Britain was concerned about France and Russia becoming too powerful on the continent, and wanted to relax some of the harsh provisions of the Versailles Treaty. • The Search for Peace – Through the League of Nations, the great powers agreed to limit their armies and navies. • The League’s Weakness – Though the goals of the League were laudable, the League had no way to enforce it’s actions. Postwar Economics • Britain and France Recover – Huge war debts, unemployment, strikes, out of date factories, and damage from WWI contributed to large economic problems for Britain and France. Reparations from Germany did help however, though this did not entirely help with unstable political situations. • The United States Booms – The U.S. came out of WWI as the worlds leading economic power The Great Depression • Falling Demand and Overproduction – High demand for goods during the war fell afterwards, hurting farmers and miners as prices for basic products fell. This brought about reduced consumption at the same time as new production techniques allowed for record production of consumer goods. – As demand for factory goods dwindled, factories laid off thousands, further hurting the economy. • Crash and Collapse – Wall Street was booming, stock prices were going up, people were borrowing at record rates. Then the fundamental problems with the economy caught up with Wall Street, and the house of cards came tumbling down. In order to control inflation, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates, which exacerbated the problem. • The Depression Spreads – 1000’s of banks collapsed – Farms were foreclosed – Depression spreads to world as trade slowed The Democracies React to the Depression • Britain and France Search for Solutions – Countries looked for solutions to rising unemployment and financial instability. Confronted with these problems, middle of the road democracies seemed incapable of the direct action needed, lending extremists from both the left and the right validity in arguments for dealing with the crisis. • Roosevelt Offers the United States a New Deal – Hoover initially decided to let private interests deal with charity for the unemployed, and businesses to deal with the economy. These measures failed completely, leading to the election of FDR. – FDR came into office with ideas to help with unemployment, banking, and the economy. FDR believed that the government needed to take an active role in the economy, in opposition to more conservative thinkers. FDR managed to turn the economy around, and more importantly, gave people hope. • Loss of Faith in Democracy – As the misery of the depression deepened, increasingly people questioned the ability of democratic governments to deal with the problems, and started looking to other solutions, including socialism and fascism. Fascism in Italy • Mussolini’s Rise to Power • Broken promises from WWI (Austrian territory) enraged Italian nationalists. Russian revolution inspired peasants to seize land, and workers to strike. Returning veterans faced unemployment. Government split, and unable to govern. – A Leader Emerges • Son of a socialist blacksmith and a teacher, Benito Mussolini rejected socialism in favor of nationalism, and organized veterans into a Fascist Party, vowing to end corruption, and reviving Roman greatness. – Mussolini Gains Control • Mussolini organized the Fascist combat squads in black shirts, and used violence to break up leftists and socialist meetings, rallies, presses, and farmers cooperatives. He then marched on Rome, calling for a new government. • Fearing civil war, King Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister, October 30, 1929. Mussolini's Rule – – – – • State Control of the Economy – • The Fascist rise to power began earlier, as Fascists suppressed rival parties, rigged elections, muzzled the press, and replaced officials with Fascist supporters. Critics were thrown into prison, forced into exile, or murdered, and the regime was upheld with terror, propaganda, and secret police. The Pope gave support in exchange for the recognition of the sovereignty of Vatican City. Mussolini takes the title, Il Duce (the Leader). Mussolini brought the economy under state control, but continued capitalism. This meant that the government favored businesses over labor, increasing production at the expense of low wage labor that was tightly controlled. The Individual and the State – – To Fascists, the glory of the state was all, the individual was important only to bring glory to the state. Everyone was bombarded with propaganda about the glory of the state “Believe! Obey! Fight!”. Men were to be ruthless, women to have children (have 14 and get a medal from Il Duce), and children were taught to be tough and obey. Young Fascists paraded in torchlight ceremonies, learned about the glories of ancient Rome, sang patriotic songs. The Nature of Fascism – Mussolini created the first totalitarian state (one party dictatorship with complete control of the state and it’s people), and others followed his lead, notably Hitler and Stalin. • What is Fascism? – Mussolini created the term, and it has been debated the actual ideology, though there is no real unifying ideology other than the glory of the state (14 defining characteristics) • The Appeal of Fascism – Strong, stable government – National pride – Good for business • Fascism Compared to Communism – – – – Fascists supported societies with defined social status Fascist support private business and wealth Communists reject social status Both appeal to urban and agricultural workers • Fourteen Defining Characteristics Of Fascism By Dr. Lawrence Britt Dr. Lawrence Britt has examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes. Britt found 14 defining characteristics common to each: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism - Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays. 2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights - Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc. 3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause - The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc. 4. Supremacy of the Military - Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized. 5. Rampant Sexism - The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution. 6. Controlled Mass Media - Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common. 7. Obsession with National Security - Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses. 8. Religion and Government are Intertwined - Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions. 9. Corporate Power is Protected - The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite. 10. Labor Power is Suppressed - Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed. 11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts - Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked. 12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment - Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations. 13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption - Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders. 14. Fraudulent Elections - Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections. The Soviet Union Under Stalin • A Totalitarian State • – Stalin’s Five Year Plans • – Russia had always suffered from economic backwardness, and though various leaders had tried to remedy this (Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, The Romanovs, Lenin), Stalin took direct control of the economy, and set 5 year plans to catch up with the west. This form of economy is called a command economy, where the state makes all the decisions about production and distribution. Mixed Results in Industry • • – Karl Marx had predicted that under communism, the state would eventually fade away as the people made all decisions locally, but under Stalin, the opposite occurred, and the state grew into a fearsome entity. Under the 5 year plans, bonuses were given for meeting goals, and punishment for failing to meet them. Because of the inefficiency of the system, surpluses occurred in some areas, and shortages in others. On the whole, industry expanded greatly during this time, but the average living conditions of the people did not. Workers were given low wages, and were forbidden to strike. Consumer goods were scarce. Forced Collectivization in Agriculture • • Under Lenin, Stalin was one of the officers in charge of making sure agricultural goods made it to the cities after the revolution, which was made more difficult because of the redistribution of land after the revolution. Stalin wanted all the farms to be large collectives, with no private plots of land, and quotas would be established to bring food to the centers of industry. To this end, Stalin started a program of de-kulakization (a kulak is a wealthy farmer), which led to terrible famine as all the food was taken by the Red Army from the farmers in retaliation to the farmers trying to resist the order. Between 5 to 8 million peasants died in the forced collectivization, known as the “terror famine.” Agricultural output remained low however. Stalin’s Terror Tactics – • Terror as a Weapon – – – – – – – – • Stalin used terror as a weapon to bring the population under control. Secret police, torture, disappearances, violent purges stamped out dissent. Crimes against humanity Violated individual rights Opened letters Listening devices Controlled press No protests Critics sent to gulags or executed Some individuals were completely erased The Great Purge – Under the guise of preventing counter-revolution • • • • • • • Old Bolsheviks Activists War heroes Industrial mangers Writers Show trials Results of the Purge – – Many experts were purged, leading to cronyism, corruption, inefficiencies Many general officers were purged, with large gaps in the chain of command, which seriously hampered the Soviet Union during the first years of WWII. Communists Attempt to Control Thought • Propaganda – – – • Censorship and the Arts – – – • The Revolution was supposed to be about freedom, but artists and writers soon came under intense scrutiny by the party and the secret police to make sure everything agreed with Stalin’s messages. Socialist Realism All media was supposed to glorify and support the state, and vilify capitalism and enemies of the state. Russification – – – – • Control of hearts and minds, boost morale Cult of personality The main newspaper was called Pravda (Truth), and was the main source of propaganda Making the population more Russian. 11 different republics Dozens of languages and cultures Used troops from different republics to control each other War on Religion – – Religion was seen as a source of power outside the control of the state, so religion was banned, and preaching a counter-revolutionary activity. Churches and shrines were taken and used for offices, or destroyed. Soviet Society Under Stalin • The New Elite Takes Control – – • The Communist Revolution was gone, and in it’s place was something called Communism, that took some of the ideas and forms, but was under a totalitarian government, controlled by an elite comprised of Communist Party members, industrial leaders, high ranking military officers, scientists, favored artists and writers. The elite enjoyed better housing, special shops and clubs, privileges, and travel. On the other hand, the elite were often the target of purges. Benefits and Drawbacks – While only a few were members of the party, all Soviets enjoyed some benefits: • • • • • • – • Free education Free medical Free clothing Free day care Low cost housing Low cost food Disadvantages included shortages of fruits and meats, shortage of housing, very few specialty items. Women in the Soviet Union – – Women perhaps gained the most, becoming equal partners in society, engaged in all spheres of activity including the military. Later on however, because women were putting off having children in order to pursue careers, population growth was stalling, and propaganda was changed to encourage women to become wives and have children. Soviet Foreign Policy • Soviet foreign policy up to 1939 was a mixture of paranoia in defense of the revolution, and attempts to spread the revolution around the world. • In 1919, Lenin formed the Comintern, or Communist International, to foment and spread Communist Revolution around the world. These actions created a great deal of suspicion among the western powers about Soviet intentions, and fueled the Red Scare in the U.S. and anti-communist activities in many western nations. Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany – • In 1923, an army veteran and leader of an extremist party tried to emulate Mussolini’s example, and staged a coup in Munich that failed. He ended up behind bars, where he wrote a book proclaiming his views that would become a bestseller, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The Weimar Republic’s Rise and Fall • – Political Struggles • – When payments to France on reparations fell behind, France occupied the Rhur Valley (coal and iron). Germans protested by striking, and the government continued to pay them. The Weimar Republic ended up printing more and more money to make payments, causing massive inflation. In one year an item that cost 100 marks in 1922, would cost 944,000 marks in 1923. Savings were wiped out, and it could take a wheelbarrow full of money just to buy a loaf of bread. Recovery and Collapse • – The moderate government was immediately attacked from all sides, for the Treaty of Versailles, for being too liberal, too conservative, too weak, and for all of the problems Germany experienced as a result of the war. Runaway Inflation • – With the close of WWI, the country was close to chaos, a socialist revolution was brewing, and the Kaiser abdicated. In Weimar, German leaders created a new constitution for the Weimar Republic, a democratic government with a parliament, and gave women the right to vote. In response, the Western powers agreed to reduce the reparations, France withdrew from the Rhur, and the U.S. made loans available to the German government. These actions stabilized the Republic until the depression hit, and the people turned to Hitler to solve these problems. Weimar Culture • Much like Harlem, Berlin became a center of art, music, literature, plays, much of it critical of the government, and western culture in general. Later, these times would be viewed as vulgar and permissive. The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power – – • Hitler’s Manifesto – – • Born in Austria in 1889, Hitler was a part of the culture that looked down on the minorities of the Hapsburg Empire (Jews, Serbs, Poles). He moved to Germany after he was rejected from Art School, and joined the German Army in WWI. After the war, he joined a right-wing extremist political group, the National Workers Socialist Group, or Nazi. He gained leadership of the group, organized the followers into fighting squads known as storm troopers (brown-shirts) to fight in the streets. After his failed coup, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf in prison, which would become the bible of Nazi goals and ideology. Hitler’s writings emphasized nationalism, racism, anti-semitism, the superiority of the Aryan Race, and expansion of Germany to the East, to find Lebensraum (living space). Hitler Comes to Power – – Hitler spent only a year in prison, and returned to his leadership of the Nazi Party. The Great Depression created the conditions that Hitler needed, and fearing the Communists more, Hitler was invited to become Chancellor. Within a year, the Reichstag (German Parliament building) was burned down and communists were blamed. Hitler became dictator, taking control of all government functions. Non-Nazis were purged from government, civil rights were suspended, other political parties were suspended, and even purged his own party of “disloyal” elements. The Third Reich Controls Germany – – – • Germany Becomes a Totalitarian State – • November 7, 1938, a young Jew whose parents had been mistreated in Germany, shot and wounded a German diplomat in Paris. Hitler used this as an excuse to attack Jews openly. November 9th , 10th, Nazi mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany. Nazi Youth – • In 1935, The Nuremburg Laws stripped Jews of German citizenship. Jews were prohibited from marrying non-Jews, attending or teaching at schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, publishing books. Many Jews fled Germany. The Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) – • The German state was reorganized into a brutal system of repression, terror, and racism. The Gestapo (secret police) enforced Hitler’s new laws. The Campaign Against the Jews Begins – • Holy Roman Empire Bismarck's Empire Hitler’s Germany, a thousand year Empire Children in Nazi Germany were taught racism, and indoctrinated in the Nazi culture. Schoolbooks and courses were changed to reflect the new ideologies. Hitler Youth were created to exemplify the Aryan ideal. Women of the correct heritage were rewarded for having purebred children. Purging German Culture – Hitler also sought to cleanse German culture by removing all of the foreign and Jewish influences. Authoritarian Rule in Eastern Europe • Ethnic Conflict – Many of the new countries created at the end of WWI did not have experience with democracy, and because of the problems with the great depression and ethnic differences caused turmoil. • Democracy Retreats – These problems challenged governments, and many turned to fascism. – In Hungary, military strongman Nicholas Horthy overthrew the communist government in 1919. – In 1926, right-wing military hero Joseph Pilsudski took over Poland. – Right-wing dictators emerged in every European country except Czechoslovakia and Finland.