The New Deal "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.” Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1932 after accepting the Democratic nominations Essential Questions for the New Deal 1. In what ways did FDR and the New Deal introduce a more active role for the Federal Government in the lives of average Americans? 1. How did his FDR’s Presidency and the goals and actions of the New Deal set the stage for the 20th and 21st centuries? 1. How did FDR and the New Deal shape the Democratic Party agenda through the Obama years? Conversely, how did the forces that grew against FDR and the New Deal shape the Republican Party through the present. Election of 1932 FDR’s First Inauguration 1. 2. 3. 4. To what fears was President Roosevelt probably referring to when he said that the “only thing we have to fear is fear itself”? In what ways does President Roosevelt speak to the American people as a peer? As a leader? Do you notice any trends? Why doesn’t President Roosevelt consider monetary profit to be the primary measure of a recovery? In your opinion, should a president have broad executive power to wage a war against emergencies? Explain. The New Deal What was it? A series of of experimental projects designed and instituted by the Federal Government aimed at restoring stability and dignity to the economy, and society, of the United States. The New Deal would also change how the Executive Branch influenced the everyday life of American people. What did it do? Created programs and institutions that assisted by doing one of the following: 1. Providing relief for Americans 2. Helping Americans to recover 3. Providing reform to prevent this from happening again The Three R’s The First 100 Days Using chapter 23.1 describe what the following programs did and categorize them into either programs for relief, recovery, or reform. The Emergency Banking Relief Act Relief Reform Recovery The Federal Securities Act Relief The Securities and Exchange Commission Reform The Agricultural Adjustment Act Recovery The Civilian Conservation Corps Relief National Recovery Administration Recovery The Federal Emergency Relief Administration Relief The Public Works Administration/Civil Works Administration Relief Recovery Answer the Following Question: Describe how the New Deal was seen as unconstitutional. What were some of the stances critics took to prove it was unconstitutional? Too much power to the President. Federal power in state matters. Court Packing. Critics of the New Deal (Not Doing Enough!) Senator Huey Long Promoted wealth distribution through his “every man a king” slogan. Antagonized the wealthy to help the poor, but some saw it as envious and corrupt. Assassinated in 1935 when many considered him a possible challenger to President Roosevelt in the 1936 Presidential Election. Father Charles Coughlin Believed that some New Deal programs only benefitted a few people groups. Believed that Roosevelt should have nationalized the banks. Held a radio show which helped to spread his ideas, but it would be cancelled in 1942. Dr. Francis Townshend Organized the elderly to form the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan. Believed $200 per month should be given to anyone over the age of 60 and that money needed to be spent within that month to prevent hording. Critics of the New Deal (Doing Too Much!) The American Liberty League Believed that the work of President Roosevelt was on the verge of socialist and a dictatorship. Also believed that the President violated the contract between the people and the branches of government (that being the Constitution). The Second New Deal Why was a second New Deal needed? For as helpful as his programs were, more needed to be done to improve the economy and meet the benchmarks President Roosevelt had established. Work during the Second New Deal (1935) would be focused on the forgotten man. 1936 Presidential Election: President Roosevelt Governor Landon Roosevelt and the Supreme Court President Roosevelt would “pack” the Supreme Court prior to his Second New Deal. Why would he want to do this? President Roosevelt was unhappy with the way in which the Supreme Court challenged some of his programs. How would President Roosevelt do that? Load the court with justices who would vote in his favor preventing his programs from being challenged. The president proposed that for every justice over the age of 70 he could elect an additional justice of his choosing. Outcome? Not good. Many saw it as power being centralized around the Executive branch (dictator!). The Second New Deal What programs were passed? Works Progress Administration - Tasked with creating jobs for the common man. Led to the construction of airports, libraries, schools, hospitals, and built or repaired roads and streets. - Also employed artists, musicians, and authors. Social Securities Act - Provided supplemental funds for those who were retired and over 65 - Established an unemployment fund for those who were out of work - Provided financial aid to families with disabled or dependent children How does Social Security work? Social Security (OASDI) Old Age, Survivor, Disability Insurance How does it work for the individual? How does it work for the collective? The Second New Deal What programs were passed? Works Progress Administration - Tasked with creating jobs for the common man. Led to the construction of airports, libraries, schools, hospitals, and built or repaired roads and streets. - Also employed artists, musicians, and authors. Social Securities Act - Provided supplemental funds for those who were retired and over 65 - Established an unemployment fund for those who were out of work - Provided financial aid to families with disabled or dependent children Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act - Required manufacturers to list ingredients in food, drugs, and cosmetic products. The New Deal Did it work? Kind of… Some programs were notably more successful than others with many programs overlapping in what they actually did, and some actually negatively impacted the nation. President Roosevelt got the nation back on its feet, but programs could not do it on there own (recession hits in 1937) and Congress pressured the president to avoid formulating a third set of New Deal programs. Many programs still exist today: Social Security Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Security and Exchange Commission And more… What would get the nation out of its economic slump?