Support and guidance - Unit 2, topic 2 : Crowded

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6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations –
Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Overview
Requirements of the specification
What are crowded coasts?
Investigating crowded coasts
In Part 2
Ideas for fieldwork
Research on crowded coasts
Making it work for the exam
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1. Overview
• Unit 2 has four components, but you
are only required to study two of
these.
• In the 75 minute exam you answer
one question based on your two
chosen topic areas. This means there
is no choice.
• This exam is designed to test both
knowledge and understanding of
geographical concepts as well as
geographical skills.
• Fieldwork, research and the enquiry
process lie at the heart of this exam.
• The most important ways of ensuring
the highest possible grades in this
module is (i) being able to focus on
the question set, (ii) to be able to use
resources effectively, and (iii) to get
your fieldwork in a form that works for
the exam.
UNIT 2: The Paired
Options –you only
study one in each
pair!
The ‘Physical’ Pair
1. Extreme
Weather
2. Crowded Coasts
The ‘Human’ Pair
1. Unequal Spaces
2. Rebranding
UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure
• Normally the first part of
each question starts with
a data stimulus element.
• The fieldwork and
research elements are
related directly to work
you have carried out
during a field trip AND
may involve questions
about how you
processed, interpreted
etc what you found.
• The remaining question
is more management and
issues based. Here case
study knowledge will be
required.
•The data stimulus in unlikely
to be the 15 mark question
•Data stimulus with an analysis
element is possible
What makes the coast so attractive?
The factors opposite show why the
coastal zone has always attracted
settlers and been favoured by
developers. European countries
built great ports to receive goods
from their colonies abroad (e.g.
The port of Hong Kong). Of the
factors opposite, which do you
think is the most important and
why? How might this vary from
place to place and time to time?
Global - Quick coasts facts
• 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast
• Coastal population densities are typically 80
people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas;
they rise to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges deltas.
• Migration is a key component of growth
Growth in the southern USA
Coastal counties
occupy 17% of USA
land area, yet are
home to and 53% of
population.
There are a number
of growth hotspots
including Florida,
Georgia, Texas and
California
1500 new
houses
approved
each day in
all coastal
counties
combined.
400% population
growth since 1980
in some Florida
counties
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill
has focused ideas of coastal pressure –
the impacts on fishing + ecosystems
will likely be enormous
Different types of coast
Retirement
Coasts
Examples
include:
Parts of
Norfolk,
Cornwall,
plus UK
south coast,
Florida
Resourcerich
Coasts
Examples
include:
South-east
Asia shrimp
industry,
Nile and
Niger Delta
Many coasts are multi-purpose,
with an overlap of different
types of activity occurring in
adjacent locations or at the
same places.
Tourism
coasts
Examples
include:
(almost all
coasts), but
specifically
any coastal
counties of
southern
England,
Costa Blanca
Industrial
coasts
Examples
include:
Rotterdam,
south East
UK, Pearl
River Delta,
coastal cities
of China,
including
Hong Kong
Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’,
the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’.
Coasts may be
developed for a
number of
reasons – they
can be
classified into a
number of
different types
– there are
some examples
opposite.
What other
types of coast
are there and
where might
they be found?
1. Competition for coasts
Coasts attract a
wide range of users –
this can bring
challenges and
opportunities for
managers of coastal
areas. Conservation
of areas is becoming
increasingly
complex, especially
when weighed up
against the
economic arguments
of industry and
tourism.
Who might be
the different
coastal
stakeholders?
A number of physical and
human factors shape the
coastline.
An exam question could
ask you to identify the
physical and human
factors from a resource,
e.g. GIS map / satellite
image
Factors that
shape the
coastline
Physical factors, e.g. sand dunes,
mudflats, estuary, sand banks,
woodland , river
Human factors, e.g. roads,
agriculture / farming. Settlement,
bridge
2. Coping with the pressure
Coastal developments create
patterns resulting from the
competition for space. This
can lead to pressure on
coastal environments. The
sea and shoreline can distort
the patterns of land use.
A pressurised coastal system….
•
•
•
•
•
Tossa de Mar, Spain
Increasingly crowded as tourist
market changes.
No longer fully ‘coastal’.
Potential conflicts between old
and new, residents and visitors,
development versus conservation.
A big issue is the future of such
places with demands for water
especially during the summer
tourist season.
3. Increasing risks
You should be aware of the risks
posed by the growing incidence of
coastal hazards – and potentially
their social, economic and
environmental impacts
•Context links back to Unit 1 in terms
of climate change
•Rising sea levels; increased storm
activity + coastal flood risk
•Importance of ‘one off’ events such
as 1953, tsunami and hurricanes
•Touch on issues such as isostatic
change for the UK
•There is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal
retreat or flood risk’); in many cases
both can easily be covered.
The Fal estuary
in Cornwall; areas
vulnerable to sea
level rise
Coastal change…..
Coastlines have always changed and
responded to physical and human
processes. What is now of particular
concern is rates of change and
numbers of vulnerable people
Climate change and rapid coastalisation
are big threats globally. In the UK large
amounts of money are being spend to
try to manage threat and reduce risk.
You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your
chosen coast or coasts
HAZARDS
Frequency and
magnitude of events
such as storm surges
Risk =
VULNERABILITY
A brief contrast might
be useful; physical and
human factors both
important
CAPACITY: present resources and ability
to prepared for the future
Risk
The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods,
economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or
human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions.
Hazard
A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or
injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Vulnerability
The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which
increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
Capacity
A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that
can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
4. Coastal
management
You should be aware that there
are a range of coastal
management and defence
strategies. What are their
advantages and disadvantages?
- Hold the line (hard
and soft approaches)
- Strategic retreat
- Do Nothing
- Advance the line
Integrated Coastal Zone
Management (ICZM) and SMPs
(Shoreline Management
Plans) and ideas that should
be researched.
Example – Newbiggin, N.E England
Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence
leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is
an increasing risk.
Also, the town itself has suffered from
mining job losses and relative isolation
within SE Northumberland
An ambitious £10million plan to
improve the beach and promenade
area through a replenishment scheme
Plan details 2007-8
Removal of some sea wall
to improve beach access
and appearance
500,000 tonnes beach
nourishment
Offshore breakwater
to maintain beach
and reduce wave
energy; built from
concrete tetrapods
Landscaping works
around the town to
improve image
Now see part 2 for the Fieldwork and Research

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