Generic high power target studies

Report
UKHPT
Proposal for continuation of generic high power
target studies
Rob Edgecock
(Huddersfield & STFC)
on behalf of the UK High Power Target Group (UKHPT)
Outline
UKHPT
 Introduction
 Motivation for the proposal
 UKHPT
 WPs:
- Motivation
- External context
 Milestones
 Cost
 Conclusions
Introduction
UKHPT
 Our charge: propose generic high power target programme
 Used this as an opportunity:
combine 4 separate target groups
Group
Main recent activities
HPTG Technology Department
T2K, Super-beams, muon
production, powder targets
Huddersfield Group
ADSR, ESS, muon production
ISIS Group
TS1, TS2
UKNF Target Group
Neutrino Factory, thermal neutrons
 Unique in the world
 Broad range of skills and experience
 Apply to find solutions for important HP targets
UKHPT
High Power Targets
 WP1: Generic tools for high power target
development and operation
 WP2: ISIS upgrades
 WP3: Thorium energy amplifiers (ADSR)
 WP4: Neutrino Factory solid target
 WP5: Low energy thermal neutron production
 WP6: Conventional neutrino and super-beams
 WP7: Muon to electron conversion experiments
 WP8: Generic fluidised powder target research
UKHPT
High Power Targets
 WP1: Generic tools for high power target
development and operation
 WP2: ISIS upgrades
 WP3: Thorium energy amplifiers (ADSR)
 WP4: Neutrino Factory solid target
 WP5: Low energy thermal neutron production
 WP6: Conventional neutrino and super-beams
 WP7: Muon to electron conversion experiments
 WP8: Generic fluidised powder target research
UKHPT
High Power Targets
 WP1: Generic tools for high power target
development and operation
 WP2: ISIS upgrades
 WP3: Thorium energy amplifiers (ADSR)
 WP4: Neutrino Factory solid target
 WP5: Low energy thermal neutron production
 WP6: Conventional neutrino and super-beams
 WP7: Muon to electron conversion experiments
 WP8: Generic fluidised powder target research
High Power Targets
UKHPT
 WP1: Generic tools for high power target
development and operation
 WP2: ISIS upgrades
 WP3: Thorium energy amplifiers (ADSR)
 WP4: Neutrino Factory solid target
 WP5: Low energy thermal neutron production
 WP6: Conventional neutrino and super-beams
 WP7: Muon to electron conversion experiments
 WP8: Generic fluidised powder target research
Note:
Many of the HP target problems are common (generic).
Broad range of skills are required to solve them.
This proposal makes them available for each target.
Not possible with individual proposals.
UKHPT
WP1: Generic Tools for High Power Targets
 Efficient, reliable and safe operation of high power targets requires:
- thorough understanding of the target material operational limits
- good real-time condition monitoring of the target
 Even more important for future higher power targets!
 Recent experience shows benefits of solid targets
 Need to assess true limits of solids:
- R&D
- measurements from existing targets, e.g. TS1, TS2, T2K
 Improved temperature measurement:
- improved confidence in target condition monitoring
- extended operating life for targets
- reduced frequency of target replacement and disposal
 Monitoring of target and target cladding erosion:
- erosion issues with cladding in high velocity coolant environment
- careful control of target containment vessel atmosphere
UKHPT
WP1: Generic Tools for High Power Targets
Aims:
 Develop tools based on new technology
 Better reliability and performance in extreme environments
 In particular:
- Temperature measurement
- Target structural integrity eg cladding condition
- Heat transfer integrity
- Erosion/corrosion of target and cladding
- Long term strain measurement
 Maximum allowable temperature and thermal shock for solid targets
 Evaluation of erosion/corrosion rates of targets and cladding materials
UKHPT
WP2: ISIS Upgrades
(1) 180 MeV linac: 0.5 MW
(2) 3.3 GeV ring: >1 MW
(3) 800 MeV linac: ~5 MW
Current focus: accelerators.
Target(s) need work as well.
Current idea: exploit
developments elsewhere.
UKHPT
WP2: ISIS Upgrades
!
C ry oge nic
Mod erato r
P iping
Co olin g W at er P iping
D riv e Mo dule
V ess el L id
O uter S h ielding
Targ et D is k
P rot on B ea m
Targe t V es sel
" #$%&'!( )!* +&$' ,!!- . / %0' !1 22' 3 405!+6/ !* +&$' ,!7 ' 22' 0!
 UKHPT has much relevant expertise, e.g.
!
8' +0#6$!,9' !: &#3 +&5!; . . 0#6$!< +,' &!=0. < !>[email protected]@!0C2D!#6!,9' !,&+62#,#. 6!4' ,< ' ' 6!,9
- long term operation of tungsten
target, inc. radiation damage
: #: #6$! +6/ ! ,9' ! &. ,+,#6$! +E0' ! #2! ; &#,#; +0)! 1 ! &'F#' < ! . =! : . 22#40' ! / 56+3 #; ! 2' +02! 0' /
2' 0' ; ,#. 6! . =! +! 9#$9! #6,' $&#,5G! 4' 00. < 2! =+; ' ! 2' +0)! ! * 9' ! 20. < ! &. ,+,#. 6+0! F' 0. ;
- helium cooling
2#$6#=#; +6,05!' E,' 6/ !,9' !0#=' !. =!,9' !< ' +&!=+; ' )!!H. < ' F' &G!,9' !0+&$' !29+=,!/ #+3 ' ,' &!>B
- thermal shock
&'J %#&'/ !,. !+; ; . 3 3 . / +,' !,9' !< +,' &!=0. < !,. !,9' !,+&$' ,!/ #2K!0#3 #,' / !,9' !2' 0' ; ,#. 6!. =!+
2' +0!: . 22#4#0#,#' 2)!!* 9' !2' +02!%2' / !#6!,9' !: &. ,. ,5: ' !/ &#F' !L( M
!%2' !2,' 00#,' A. 6A$&+: 9#
- neutron production
+6/ !< ' &'!. &#$#6+005!/ ' 2#$6' / !=. &!%2' !45!N1 81 !#6!9#$9!#6,' $&#,5!252,' 3 2)!
8' +0#6$! 4' ,< ' ' 6! ,9' ! =' ' / ! +6/ ! / #2; 9+&$' ! ; 9+66' 02! #62#/ ' ! ,9' ! < +,' &! ; . %:
- moderation, etc
+; ; . 3 : 0#29' / !< #,9!+!: +22#F' G!; 0. 2' A=#,,#6$!&#6$)!!O&'; #2#. 6!,. 0' &+6; #6$!,9&. %$9. %,!,9
3 . / %0' !+00. < 2!=. &!+!2' +0!$+: !. =!0' 22!,9+6!I )I B@!3 3 )!!1 !45: +22!0' +K!&+,' !. =!0' 22!,9+
,9' !,. ,+0!=0. < !#2!' E: ' ; ,' / )!
UKHPT
WP2: ISIS Upgrades
Aims:
 Assess existing TS1 for operation at 0.5 MW and modifications required
 Contribute to ESS target activities:
- Need to start soon as ESS moving “Pre-construction” to
“Construction”
- Limited discussion so far
- Possibility of external funding in the future?
 Apply knowledge gained to ISIS
 Conceptual design for:
- 1 MW
- 5 MW
UKHPT
WP3: Thorium Energy Amplifiers
 Thorium as a nuclear fuel:
- identified reserves would power the world for 10000 years
- nuclear proliferation resistant (no Pu)
- 0.6% of waste for storage cf Uranium
- but..........sub-critical
 Make neutrons via spallation
- Higher safety margins
 Accelerator requirements are tough:
- >4 MW
- 99.9% duty cycle due to thermal stress, power production
 Significant interest world-wide
UKHPT
WP3: Thorium Energy Amplifiers
 Aker Solutions (bought by Jacobs Engineering Group) ADTR
 Searching for partners – academic & industry, mainly UK
 In discussion with us re target and beam window
UKHPT
WP3: Thorium Energy Amplifiers
Aims:
 Determine target and beam window requirements for ADTR
 Study:
- Potential target materials
- Solid vs liquid
- Thermal shock issues
- Whether more than one target feasible
- Integration of target(s) within reactor
- Neutron delivery to fuel
- Operation of target(s) within reactor
 Produce conceptual target design
 Design for a target beam window
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
 Use compact, DC, possibly electrostatic, cheap accelerators to produce high
flux of thermal neutrons commercially
- Li(p,n) looks attractive
- Possible applications:
- BNCT
- Moly99 production
- Security
- Emphasis here on first two
- Check whether third improved
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
 Very good for aggressive tumours, particularly infiltrating healthy tissue
 Complementary to other therapies
 Most studied: Glio-blastoma multiforme (GBM); kills 2000/year in UK
 2 year survival:
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy + Temozolomide
BNCT + Radiotherapy
10.4%
26.5%
45.7%
 Current neutrons sources: test reactors
 For accelerators:
- 5-10 mA DC
- ~ 3 MeV
- solid target
 Best currently: ~1 mA using Dynamitron (IBA) in Birmingham
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
BNCT Aims:
 ”Proof-of-principle” project funded by STFC
 Implementation, testing and running for clinical trials
 Commercialisation:
- Siemens ONIAC
- IBA Dynamitron
 Modelling and tests: possible external funding
 Implementation in Birmingham(?)
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
Moly Aims:
 99Mo is used for 99mTc: used is 85% of medical tracer applications
 Current source: 5 reactors, all >40 years old; two recently off
 Possible to make via accelerators, but needs to be commercially viable
 Low energy (low cost!) option studied here:
- 50-100 mA at 5 MeV
- flowing lithium target
 Aims:
- Determination of requirements
- Modelling of neutron production, heat deposition and transfer
- Neutron capture and delivery
- Extraction of moly
 Possible external funding: NHS for
- Moly extraction test in Bham
- Prototype
UKHPT
WP4: Neutrino Factory Solid Target
 Baseline target: free mercury jet
 But:
- selected in 2006
- much progress since then on solid option
- trend away based on problems at 2 contained mercury targets
- plus heat load.........
UKHPT
WP4: Neutrino Factory Solid Target
 Solid baseline option: tungsten
 Much progress:
- sufficient yield strength, melting point, lifetime
- radiation damage tested at ISIS
 Lower Z interesting to reduce neutron production and heat load
 But:
- must be strong enough
- have a high enough melting point
- produce as many pions
UKHPT
WP4: Neutrino Factory Solid Target
Aims:
 For W or ?
- test bulk samples in HiRadMat at CERN
- determine effect of radiation on strength
- verify solid target change mechanism
 NB: shock test rig of interest to others and may become commercial facility
UKHPT
WP6: Conventional Neutrino and Super-Beams
 Recent indications from T2K and MINOS that sin22θ13 ≥ ~0.01 make long
baseline SuperBeams a most attractive option for first searches for CP
violation in the neutrino sector.
 UKHPT members were responsible for T2K target (PPARC grant funded),
and design studies for LBNE target (FNAL funded) and CERN SPL-based SB
target (FP7 funded).
 Request for participation in three possible next generation facilities:
- LBNE at FNAL (0.7 – 2 MW)
- LBNO in CERN (2 MW)
- T2K upgrade in Japan (1.66 MW)
 Funding this research will give the UK increased leverage for wider access
for UK physicists to whichever of these facilities is constructed.
UKHPT
WP6: Conventional Neutrino and Super-Beams
 Primary purpose: multi-strand SB target development programme:
- Targets will be required to operate at limits of static and dynamic
mechanical stresses, heat transfer and radiation damage.
- Off-line testing of designs is required to check simulations and
identify limits where simulations alone are insufficient.
- On-line testing e.g. at the HiRadMat facility in CERN.
Packed bed cannister with symmetrical
transverse flow configuration
UKHPT
WP6: Conventional Neutrino and Super-Beams
Aims:
 Specification of preferred candidate materials for targets and beam windows
 Specification of off-line tests required to determine material lifetimes
 Beam window design
 Operating limits for helium cooled graphite targets
 Detailed design of a beryllium target
 Detailed design of packed bed target using Ti or Be
 Determination of preferred target technology for each facility
 Generic conceptual design of SB target station
 Off-line heating and cooling tests
UKHPT
WP7: Muon to Electron Conversion Experiments
 UKHPT members have been asked to contribute to the target development
for both the Mu2e and COMET experiments.
 Initial design work to the 10% level for CD-1 has been carried out under an
Accord with Fermilab. The next stage will be the major work, and it is
unlikely further funding from the US for a UK group will be forthcoming.
 UK funding for this work on Mu2e would be part of a wider collaboration
on accelerator R&D between STFC and Fermilab, enhancing the scientific
reputation of the UK in the US and increasing access to the facility for UK
physicists.
 Contribution to COMET in this area would strengthen the roles of the
Imperial College and UCL university groups already involved.
 It would seem likely that only one of these experiments would be built.
Consequently this programme would be highly likely to be implemented in
whichever experiment is constructed.
UKHPT
WP7: Muon to Electron Conversion Experiments
COMET.
Water cooled tungsten rod.
8 GeV, 56 kW.
Spectrometer
Solenoid
Detector
Solenoid
radiation shield
pion production
target
Muon Transport
Solenoid
Mu2e target station.
Uses water cooled thin gold
rod.
Pion
Capture Solenoid
Designed by RAL group.
UKHPT
WP7: Muon to Electron Conversion Experiments
Aims:
 Engineering design of production target.
 Design of production target support and integration system within solenoid.
 Engineering design of target handling, replacement and disposal system.
 Beam window/end cap design.
 Conceptual design of Target Station.
 Prototyping of target manufacture.
 Prototyping of target support and integration system.
UKHPT
WP8: Generic Fluidised Powder Target Research
Generic flowing powder target research programme proposed for the highest power
densities.
Potential applications include a neutrino factory, muon collider, superbeam or spallation
neutron source. Flowing powder targets are suggested to have the following potential
attractions:
•
•
•
•
Shock waves
– Powdered material is intrinsically damage proof
– No cavitation, splashing or jets as for liquids
– High power densities can be absorbed without material damage
– Shock waves constrained within material grains, c.f. sand bags used to absorb impact of bullets
Heat transfer
– High heat transfer both within bulk material and with pipe walls - so the bed can dissipate high
energy densities, high total power, and multiple beam pulses
Quasi-liquid
– Target material continually reformed
– Can be pumped away, cooled externally & re-circulated
– Material easily replenished
Other
– Can exclude moving parts from beam interaction area
– Low eddy currents i.e. low interaction with NF solenoid field
– Fluidised beds/jets are a mature technology
– Most issues of concern can be tested off-line -> experimental programme
WP8: Generic Fluidised Powder Target Research
UKHPT
Still images from video clips of tungsten
power flowing from 1.2 m long x 2 cm
diameter pipes
Open jet
2
1
Contained discontinuous dense phase
3
4
1. Suction / Lift
2. Load Hopper
3. Pressurise Hopper
4. Powder Ejection and Observation
Contained continuous dense phase
UKHPT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
WP8: Generic Fluidised Powder Target Research
This new technology has already overcome initial scepticism in the community. However to
maintain momentum and, for example, to become the baseline technology for a NF/MC, will
require the following programme to be pursued:
Optimise gas lift system
Attempt to generate stable solid dense phase flow
Investigate low-flow limit
Carry out long term erosion tests and study mitigation
Implement CW operation
Develop diagnostics for monitoring and control
Study heat transfer between pipe wall and powder
Demonstrate magnetic fields/eddy currents are not a problem
– Use of high field solenoid?
Investigate active powder handling issues (cf mercury?)
Demonstrate interaction with pulsed proton beam does not cause a problem
– First experiment on HiRadMat facility at CERN planned for autumn
– Future experiment planned using LDV to measure dynamic response of pipe wall. This
experiment would be carried out together with a packed bed sample.
Study low Z target material (e.g. graphite powder) for a 4 MW SuperBeam
Costs
UKHPT
FY 12/13
Staff totals
14.50
1254.91
FY 13/14
14.67
FY 14/15
FY 15/16
13.55
1407.13
Totals/£k
1323.20
14.30 1384.49
57.02
5369.73
66.27
17.15
2.00
93.33
10.15
22.45
4.00
40.90
256.25
256.25
54.91
17.30
3.00
0.00
198.16
104.57
4.00
54.43
436.37
436.37
11.17
23.92
3.00
0.00
4.00
36.31
4.00
49.23
131.63
131.63
11.30
24.25
37.44
0.00
70.23
14.60
4.00
83.47
245.28
245.28
143.65
82.62
45.44
93.33
282.53
177.92
16.00
228.03
1069.53
1069.53
262.37
181.77
137.17
257.28
110.44
215.20
109.79
237.15
1511.16
330.44
219.51
158.99
0.00
351.41
328.17
113.49
257.55
1759.57
296.35
233.20
164.45
0.00
177.60
267.74
117.33
259.46
1516.12
306.46
240.85
204.54
0.00
249.91
228.31
121.29
301.06
1652.41
1195.62
875.32
665.14
257.28
889.36
1039.42
461.90
1055.23
6439.26
1511.16
1759.57
1516.12
1652.41
6439.26
Non-staff cost
summary
Generic tools for high power target
1 development and operation
2ISIS upgrades
3Thorium Energy Amplifiers
4Neutrino Factory solid target
5Low energy thermal neutron production
6Conventional Neutrino and Super-Beams
7Muon to electron conversion experiments
8Fluidised tungsten
Non-staff sub-totals
Non-staff totals
Total staff and
non-staff by work
package
Generic tools for high power target
1 development and operation
2ISIS upgrades
3Thorium Energy Amplifiers
4Neutrino Factory solid target
5Low energy thermal neutron production
6Conventional Neutrino and Super-Beams
7Muon to electron conversion experiments
8Fluidised tungsten
Sub-totals
Grand totals
UKHPT
Milestones
 WP4 is 1 year (for IDS RDR); all others are 4 year
 Main deliverables are conceptual designs of targets and target stations
UKHPT
Conclusions
 Targets are increasingly becoming the limiting factor in future projects
 High power targets present significant challenges
 Target R&D and target station design require a broad range of skills
 In this proposal, we are:
- bringing together 4 existing target groups with this broad range
- thereby creating a unique group
- developing generic tools for target design and operation
- undertaking R&D on targets well beyond the state-of-the-art
- creating collaborations with external groups from hospitals to
industry
- seeding external funding for further development
 Projects range from Particle Physics to STFC Grand Challenges
 All will benefit from the generic approach proposed here
UKHPT
High Power Target Issues
 Modelling of beam energy deposition
 Modelling of secondary particle production
 Modelling of target material response using FEA codes
 Target cooling or replacement
 Activation and radiation damage everywhere
 Thermal shock
 Target lifetime
 Particle capture, moderation and delivery
 Beam windows
 Target station design, inc. shielding, RH, licensing, etc
 Diagnostics in high radiation environments
 Demanding environmental and safety requirements
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
UKHPT
WP5: Low Energy Thermal Neutron Production
Security Aims:
 Scanning cargo containers
 Shielded nuclear material
 Requirements:
- 100% efficiency
- diverse material
- 1 minute/container
- low error rate
 Aims:
- Determine beam requirements
- Assess above targets
- Compare with other projects
UKHPT
WP4: Neutrino Factory Solid Target
 Solid baseline option: tungsten
 Much progress:
- sufficient yield strength, melting point, lifetime
- radiation damage tested at ISIS
 Lower Z interesting to reduce neutron production and heat load
 But:
- must be strong enough
- have a high enough melting point
- produce as many pions

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