1862: Antietam and Emancipation Antietam & Emancipation On your notes worksheet, answer the following question: What does “emancipation” mean? Antietam & Emancipation Emancipation – The act of freeing The War So Far The War So Far The Confederacy was hoping that Great Britain and France might help them in the war, giving the Confederacy an advantage. The War So Far What was the war about? Preserving the Union or Freeing the Slaves? Lincoln’s Problems- 1862 • Britain and France had begun to negotiate with the Confederacy • Lincoln was harshly criticized for not freeing the slaves (Republicans/Abolitionists) • Lacked the Constitutional authority to free the slaves • Northerners felt slavery was helping the war effort in the south. • He needed a Union victory so the announcement would not seem like an act of desperation Antietam September 17, 1862 United States Colored Troops • “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slaver,...I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.” Antietam Activity Read the Battle of Antietam Summary. Fill in the flow map as a timeline for that battle. Antietam Emancipation Emancipation Emancipation Emancipation His first challenge was that the U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Government. Emancipation Lincoln used his background as a lawyer to come up with a solution more or less based on the following questions that I would like you to answer: Emancipation Question: What did slave owners legally consider their slaves to be? Emancipation Answer: Slaves were considered to be property. Emancipation Question: What happens to property that armies capture from their enemy during a war? Image courtesy Library of Congress Emancipation Answer: The property captured (called contraband) belongs to the army that captured it and its government. Emancipation Activity Look at your excerpt from the Emancipation Proclamation. Let’s read the second and sixth paragraph together. Image courtesy Library of Congress Jan. 1of January, in the year of our Lord "That on the first day one thousand1863 eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion Only Slaves in the confederate states against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority The Union Government will support them. thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. Image courtesy Library of Congress because of And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose Already said aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as Rebellion states slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, From now on are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and slaves maintain the freedom of said persons. Image courtesy Library of Congress Emancipation The war was no longer just about preserving the union, it was also about freeing the slaves. Since the war was now about freeing the slaves, the Europeans decided to not get involved with either the Union or the Confederacy. Facts about the Emancipation Proclamation • The Battle of Antietam provided the necessary Union victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. • It did not free any slaves in Union states, it only freed slaves in rebel states • Slaves were encouraged to runaway, destroying the Southern economy • Britain and France were forced to stay out of the war • Escaped slaves were allowed to join the Union army • It changed the focus of the war. United States Colored Troops United States Colored Troops In the Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln addressed the enlistment of African Americans in the United States armed forces. Activity In paragraph #8 Lincoln discusses them being accepted into the military. Let’s read it together. Image courtesy Library of Congress And I further declare and make known, that People physically capable such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United man States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in The military said service. Image courtesy Library of Congress United States Colored Troops United States Colored Troops Activity Read the excerpt from General Order 143, which created the “United States Colored Troops” (USCT). Image courtesy National Archives EXCERPT: Government dept. Chief Administrative Officer of the army’s I -- A Bureau is established in the Adjutant General's Office for the record of all matters relating to the organization of Colored Troops…. VI -- Colored troops may be accepted by companies, to be Brought together groups of soldiers afterward consolidated in battalions and regiments by the Chief Administrative Officer of the army Adjutant General. The regiments will be numbered seriatim, in the order in which they are raised, the numbers to be decided named determined by the Adjutant General. They will be designated Regiment of U. S. Colored Troops." (U.S.C.T.) Image courtesy National Archives African Americans & the War • By Spring 1863 black soldiers were fighting along side whites- the 54th Massachusetts infantry (“Glory”) became known for their bravery in battle. United States Colored Troops Question: What do you think were some advantages for the United States in having African Americans serve in the military? United States Colored Troops Answer: African Americans joined the United States military in large numbers. This led to a larger army, one of the deciding factors in the United States defeating the Confederacy. United States Colored Troops Key items to remember from today’s lesson • The “bloodiest” day in American history was the Battle of Antietam, Maryland. • The Union “victory” at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. • Great Britain and France remained neutral and did not enter the war on the side of the Confederacy. • The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the Confederate States (Eventually all states would free their slaves) • With African Americans joining the armed forces, the United States had a greater advantage over the Confederate States because of its number of soldiers and sailors.