here - heathenhistory.co.uk

Report
GCE A Level History
Russia and Its Rulers
Little Heath School
May 2014
The Examination
Two essays
60 minutes each
Choice of 3 titles
Timing!!!!
• To get the TOP GRADES on this unit you need
to write TWO equally impressive essays in
TWO HOURS so be ruthless with yourself.
• Good idea to plan both t the start (10-15 mins.)
• Then after another c.55 MINUTES you must be
concluding your first essay.
The Specification
• 4 topic areas (see next slide)
• Examiner will set one essay from 3 of the
4 topic areas in each year
• You are taught the course in smaller more
bite size topics
The Specification
1. Russian rulers: similarities and differences in the main domestic policies
of Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II, the Provisional Government, Lenin,
Stalin, Khrushchev.
2. The nature of government: autocracy, dictatorship and totalitarianism;
change and continuity in central administration; methods of repression and
enforcement; the extent and impact of reform; the extent and effectiveness of
opposition both before and after 1917.
3. The impact of the dictatorial regimes on the economy and society of the
Russian Empire and the USSR: changes to living and working conditions of
urban and rural people; limitations on personal, political and religious freedom;
extent of economic and social changes
4. The impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian
government: the effects of the Crimean War, the Japanese War, 1905
Revolution, 1917 Revolutions, World War One, World War Two, the Cold War.
OFQUAL RULING
• Ofqual have recently told the Exam Boards
that no question can be repeated in the life
of a specification;
• Therefore however similar the questions you
see on the paper next June may appear to be
to those from a previous paper, there will be
important differences.
UNIT
F966
JAN
2010
Question/ Topic Area
10.
11.
12.
JUN
2010
10.
11.
12.
JAN
2011
10.
11.
12.
JUN
2011
“The nature of Russian government was changed more by Stalin than by any other ruler.” How far do you
agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[2]
Assess the view that all the rulers of Russia had similar aims in domestic policy in the period from 1855 to
1964.
[1]
Assess the view that the lives of the peasants in Russia did not improve in the period from 1855 to 1964. [3]
How far do you agree that the October Revolution of 1917 was the most important turning-point in the
development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964?
[4]
Assess the view that Russia’s communist leaders did less than the Tsars to improve the lives of the working
class in the period from 1855 to 1964.
[3]
“Opposition to Russian governments was ineffective in the period from 1855 to 1964.” How far do you agree
with this view?
[2]
Assess the view that the 1905 Revolution changed Russian government more than other events in the
period from 1855 to 1964.
[4]
‘Communists and Tsars ruled Russia the same way.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from
1855 to 1964?
[1]
Assess the view that economic change in Russia was more successful under Stalin than any other ruler in
the period from 1855 to 1964.
[3]
10. Assess the view that the condition of the peasantry in Russia was transformed in the period from 1855 to
1964.
[3]
11. ‘The communist rulers were effective autocrats; the Tsars were not.’ How far do you agree with this view of
Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964?
[2]
12. ‘‘All Russia’s rulers tried to modernise Russia.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855
to 1964?
[1]
JAN 2012
10.‘Lenin was more successful in dealing with opposition than any other ruler of Russia in the
period from 1855 to 1964.' How far do you agree with this view?
[2]
11. ‘The development of Russian government was influenced more by war than any other
factor.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[4]
12. How far does a study of living and working conditions in the period 1855 to 1964 suggest
that the Russian peoples lost more than they gained after 1917?
[3]
How far do you agree that Stalin’s rise to power was the most important turning-point in the
development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964?
[2]
11. ‘The rulers of Russia were reluctant reformers.' How far do you agree with this view of
Russia in the period from 1855 to 1964?
[1]
12. ‘The peoples of Russia were consistently repressed by their rulers.’ How far do you agree
with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[3]
JAN 2013 10.‘Wars had more impact than revolutions on the development of Russian government.' How
far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[4]
11.Assess the view that Russia’s communist leaders did less than the Tsars to improve the
lives of the peasants in the period from 1855 to 1964.
[3]
12.‘The aims of all the Russian rulers were the same.’ How far do you agree with this view of
the period from 1855 to 1964?
[1]
JUNE 2013 10. Assess the view that the October Revolution of 1917 changed Russian government more
than other events in the period from 1855 to 1964.
[4]
11. ‘Lenin had a greater impact on Russia’s economy and society than any other ruler.’ How far
do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[3]
12. 'Alexander III was more successful at dealing with opposition than any other ruler of Russia.'
How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
[2]
JUNE 2012
10.
Meet the
examiner
What markers are told
• “Candidates are expected to demonstrate
understanding of the issues in each question over
a period of at least a hundred years”.
• “Candidates are reminded of the synoptic nature
of the unit”.
• “Answers are required to demonstrate
understanding of the processes of historical
continuity, development and change across
the full breadth of the period studied”.
Synoptic?
• Effectively – in the context of this paper
and the requirement to demonstrate
knowledge & understanding across 100
years of history – this means taking a
comparative approach throughout
your essays.
• It is also crucial to maintain a sharp
focus on the exact question set.
Comments on June 2013 Q10
Assess the view that the October Revolution of 1917 changed Russian
government more than other events in the period from 1855 to 1964.
•
•
•
•
•
The very best answers saw October as ending a liberalising trend that had
begun in 1905, if not under Alexander II, and reached its height under the
Provisional Government. Most candidates, however, simply dismissed the
Duma period as continuing autocracy.
Good answers also picked up on the impact of the Civil War, or the reforms of
Alexander II, or the totalitarian approach of Stalin with a nod to Khrushchev.
Weaker responses merely listed turning points exclusively with little synthesis.
Candidates set out to list key events but without much cross-referencing and
synthesis.
It was also frequent for candidates to not cover the whole period and fail to
discuss completely, or at best only make passing comment on events after
1917.
A major problem for some candidates was their tendency to forget that the
Provisional Government was the victim of October, not the Tsarist regime.
Comments on June 2013 Q11
Lenin had a greater impact on Russia’s economy and society than any other
ruler.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
•
•
•
•
One problem with this question was the focus on ‘impact’. Many
candidates had a very good grasp of the developments in economics and
society across the period but they were less at home with ‘impact’.
This question was also one where a ruler by ruler approach led to a
collapse in synthesis. Weaker candidates took a “leader by leader
approach” and were limited to C at best. essays tended to start with
Lenin followed by a series of paragraphs on some of the other rulers
with very little comparison.
Better answers came from those who used close comparison of
several leaders inclusive of Lenin against specific strands of the
economy and society.
Most candidates did address both economy and society in their
answers as per the requirements of the question. However, the
economy was by far the strongest section of most.
Comments on June 2013 Q12
'Alexander III was more successful at dealing with opposition than any other ruler of
Russia.' How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964?
•
•
•
•
Stronger responses identified features of opposition early on and
compared leaders directly throughout each theme.
The best answers were thematic and defined success, concentrating on
the different tools of repression (e.g. secret police and show trials) and
also reform as tools for dealing with opposition.
The best answers considered the scale of opposition as a good
criterion for judging effectiveness.
Some weaker responses adopted a “leader by leader” approach
rather than a thematic comparison of Alexander III against his
counterparts and this prevented or made synthesis very difficult.
Question
Planning
How to plan in the exam
• The most effective answers were usually preceded by a
brief outline or plan of the candidates' intended approach.
This practice is strongly recommended.
• ‘Better plans indicate the key words of the question and the
direction in which the answer is to go’.
• ‘Candidates who want to achieve high grades must focus
their answer on the key word or phrase in the question’.
• ‘Candidates need to spend a significant amount of time
planning their answer and thinking about the themes they
will use before they begin to write’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
Question
Key Words and Phrases in the question
Key issues to be discussed
Point
Line of Argument
Ideas and line of argument.
Content
(How does this tie to the key words in the title) (Which different periods to compare)
Introduction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Conclusion
4 paragraphs may well be enough.
Submit any plans by email to:
[email protected]
Plan – initial thoughts
• Key Words
• Key Issue to focus on
• My argument
• My counter-argument
• My probable overall judgement
Consider
appropriate
course
language /
terminology
http://heathenhistory.co.uk/russia/materials
-to-support-your-studies/useful-terms/
Plan – My paragraphs
• What can I focus each paragraph on to enable me to then
write synoptically, cross-referencing and comparing
several turning points / criteria / themes / rulers / events
in each paragraph (if not sentence by sentence)?
1. P1
2. P2
3. P3
4. P4
Keep tying your
paragraphs
back to the key
words / issues
in the question
Introducing
yourself
Introducing yourself
• First impressions are important!
• ‘The candidates who perform best are those
who indicate some cross comparison in their
opening paragraph as a way of establishing a
particular argument in relation to the question.
• In this opening paragraph, they establish which
themes are relevant to the question, then
structure the rest of the essay around
discussion of these themes’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
Writing powerful
paragraphs
Powerful paragraphs
• Start each paragraph with a sentence that
makes a new point and drives your argument
forward;
• You must argue NOT describe
• Support your argument with well-chosen
examples and evidence;
• Evaluate the value / worth of this evidence;
• Conclude each paragraph with a sentence
which also links your argument forward
towards the next paragraph.
Achieving A*
SYNOPTICITY
How to be synoptic
• Writing synoptically involves comparing various
themes / factors / events / rulers across the100 year
period in each paragraph.
• Grade B candidates make cross references,
comparisons and links between different themes
/ factors / events / rulers in each paragraph.
• The highest scoring essays will make consistent
comparisons between different historical events
relevant to the themes, often on a sentence by
sentence basis.
How to achieve A*
• ‘Several candidates scored full marks on both
essays. They demonstrated a remarkable
ability to write synoptically. They produced a
good overview introduction, then crossreferenced, thoughtfully selecting evidence to
support their argument and counter-argument
before concluding with a clear judgement based
on their prior arguments’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
Assessing views
• Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the
historical view named in the question - use wellchosen evidence to both agree and disagree
with this view;
• Similarly, assess the strengths and
weaknesses of other view(s);
• Compare the strengths or weaknesses of the
named view and another view in each
paragraph (if not sentence by sentence).
Assessing views
Assessing a view
Can describe the historical view named in the question
Can assess the strengths and weaknesses of the historical view
named in the question - can use well-chosen evidence to both
agree and disagree with the view
Can identify an alternative view (or views)
Can assess the strengths and weaknesses of the other view(s)
- can use well-chosen evidence to both agree and disagree with
the view(s)
Can compare the strengths or weaknesses of the named view
and another view in each paragraph
Can compare the strengths or weaknesses of the named view
and another view in most sentences
Change & continuity
Similarity & difference
• When comparing change and continuity
think has more changed or more remained
the same?
• Consider the impact of earlier events on
later developments.
• Make sure you use examples from right
across the 100 year period.
Assessing Change & continuity
Assessing change and continuity
Can identify what has changed in the hundred year period
Can identify continuity - what has stayed the same in the
hundred year period?
Can compare change and continuity - has more changed or
more remained the same?
Can explain the impact of earlier events on later
developments
When comparing change and continuity draws on examples
from across the entire 100 year period
Assessing Similarity & Difference
Assessing similarity and difference
Can identify what has been similar over the hundred year
period
Can identify what has been different over the hundred
year period
Can compare similarity and difference - has more become
different or more remained similar?
When comparing similarities and differences draws on
examples from across the entire 100 year period
Turning Point Essays
• In the June 2011, January 2012 & June 2012
Chief Examiner’s reports these essays have been
identified as causing candidates problems.
• This is because ‘they simply produce a list of
possible turning points and then analyse each
one in turn, but this does not allow synthesis or
comparison between different turning points’.
• In other words although 4 or 5 possible turning
points are discussed, each has its own separate
paragraph with comparison missing until the end.
Turning Point Essays
•
The Chief Examiner recommends 2 good approaches:
1. Select 4 or 5 major events and then approach the essay thematically
by analysing their impact in terms of issues such as political, social,
economic etc. In this way candidates will ensure that they compare
the events in each paragraph and can conclude that event X might be
most important in terms of political change, but event Y is more important
in terms of economic development.
•
However this approach is wrong if the question specifies ‘most important
turning point in the development of government’.
•
‘Development of government’ still confuses candidates, who include
large sections on the economy and economic policies.
•
The focus must be on governmental areas, politics, parties, one party
state, structural changes, constitutions and the like; repressive methods,
methods of control, support, the fate of opposition etc.
Assessing Turning Points
Assessing the importance of turning points
Can and use themes or criteria to assess the importance of the
named turning point in the question
Can identify other turning points during the hundred year period
that are relevant to the key issue in the question and use themes
or criteria to assess their importance
Can compare, using themes or criteria, the relative importance of
the named turning point and other selected turning points
Compares the relative importance of at least two turning points in
each paragraph using themes or criteria
Compares the relative importance of at least two turning points in
most sentences using themes or criteria
Getting stuck at
Grade C
(or worse)?
How to get stuck at C at best
• ‘There seems to be a reluctance or inability
amongst some candidates to structure answers
in such a way which provides direct cross
comparison of material from different historical
periods. This is a pity, because many
candidates clearly have plenty of relevant
knowledge at their disposal, and could boost
their overall mark by a whole grade by simply
making more direct cross comparisons within
paragraphs’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
How to get stuck at D
• ‘Weaker candidates adopt a chronological
approach, with synoptic assessments being
made in a more random manner, often being
left until the conclusion, or emerging fairly
infrequently in the course of the essay’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
Bombing out
in style
How to do really badly
• ‘Answering a question that has been written or
prepared in advance rather than the EXACT
QUESTION ON THE PAPER leads to
candidates being marked down as their
answers are insufficiently focused on the key
words in the question’.
Chief Examiner’s Report
How to annoy the marker
• ‘Unfortunately some candidates still use
abbreviations such as Alex II, AIII, N2 or PG.
Some even state at the start that this is what
they will do. This short-hand neither looks
good nor reads well’. Chief Examiner’s Report
• Spell key words and names from the course
inaccurately.
• Don’t write historically; abandon the past tense and start
writing in the present tense.
Concluding
in style
Time to show judgement
• Use some key words or a phrase from the
question in the opening sentence of your
conclusion.
• You must display judgement by directly
answering the exact question set in a
conclusion that is supported by the arguments
in the main body of your essay.
• If you do this you will have sustained a fixed
focus on the key issue arising from the
question throughout the essay.
Concluding in style
Concluding
Can conclude by directly answering the exact question
set
Can display judgement by directly answering the exact
question set in a conclusion that is supported by the
arguments in the main body of the essay
In doing so has sustained a fixed focus on the key
issue arising from the question throughout the essay
Now It’s Your Turn
• You will now be given a possible three
questions.
• Plan your answers to the 2 you would choose
to answer.
• In your plan pay attention to being SYNOPTIC
(how would you maintain COMPARISONS in
each paragraph).

similar documents