4 Formation Groups form through personal, situational, and interpersonal processes. Formation depends on the members themselves; some are more likely than others to join groups. Groups come into existence when circumstances push people together rather than keeping them apart. Groups also spring up when people discover that they like one another, and this attraction provides the foundation for the development of interpersonal bonds. Who joins groups? When do people seek out others? What processes generate bonds of interpersonal attraction between members of groups? Images Courtesy of the Yorck Project Preview Joining Groups Personality Men and Women Affiliation Attraction Social Comparison Principles of Attraction Stress and Affiliation The Economics of Membership Social Comparison and the Self Relationships? Depends on attraction between people, for groups form when individuals find they like one another. Social Motivation Anxiety and Attachment Attitudes, Experiences, Expectations Who? Depends on individuals' personal qualities (traits, social motives, sex, etc.) When? Depends on the situation (e.g., ambiguous, tasks) The Five Factor Joining Groups Who Joins Groups and Who Remains Apart? Ways in which each person is like some other people; Personality dimensions of variation among people The Five Factor Model (FFM) describes the “big 5” personality traits or dimensions of difference. Model of Personality Men and Women Sex differences in group engagement are relatively minor ■ Women tend to be higher than men in relationality. ■ Women seek membership in smaller, informal, intimate groups, whereas men seek membership in larger, more formal, task-focused groups. ■ These differences are likely due, in part, to sex roles and sexism. Social Motivation Social motives predict people’s interest in joining groups need for affiliation (and rejection sensitivity) need for intimacy need for power These motives are often measured using indirect, projective tests and “experience sample” methods Social Motivation Schutz’s work on his Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) theory that explains how people use groups to satisfy their need to receive and express inclusion, control, and affection. Anxiety and Attachment Individuals who are socially inhibited, shy, and anxious are less likely to join groups. Attitudes, Experiences, Expectations People’s attitudes, experiences, and expectations are all factors that influence their decision to join a group. Karau’s Beliefs about Groups Scale Attitudes, Experiences, Expectations Students who had positive experiences in groups in high school were more likely to seek out groups to join in college (the direct relationship between "positive experiences in groups" and "seeking groups"). Source: Brinthaupt, Moreland, & Levine, 1991; Pavelchak, Moreland, & Levine, 1986 Note: Sense of Injustice + Negative Emotions (Anger) = Social Movement Participation Affiliation Joining Groups Affiliation Attraction Affiliation is the gathering together of conspecifics in one location. Affiliation becomes more likely in some situations and less likely in others. When individuals face uncertain or bewildering conditions, when they experience stressful circumstances, and when they are fearful (but not embarrassed), by joining a group they can gain the information and social support they need to help them cope with difficult circumstances. Joining Groups Sex differences in group engagement are relatively minor. ■ Women tend to be higher than men in relationality. ■ Women seek membership in smaller, informal, intimate groups, whereas men seek membership in larger, more formal, task-focused groups. ■ These differences are likely due, in part, to sex roles and sexism. Social Comparison Affiliation and social comparison Social comparison: gaining information from other people’s reactions (Festinger, 1954) Ambiguous, confusing circumstances Psychological reaction Negative emotions Uncertainty Need for information Affiliation and social comparison with others Cognitive Clarity Social Comparison Schachter’s studies of affiliation Misery loves company: People affiliate with others Misery loves miserable company: Schachter found people prefer to wait with others facing a similar experience. How do people react in an ambiguous, frightening situation? Other Motives May Reduce Affiliation Morris and his colleagues studied what people actually do when they affiliate in 3 types of situations Stress and Affiliation Groups facilitate both “fight-orflight” and “tend-and-befriend” responses to stress. Types of Social Support Stress and Affiliation Belonging Emotional support Informational support Instrumental support Spiritual support Directional Comparison Social Comparison and the Self Downward Social Comparison Upward Social Comparison • Choosing comparison targets who are performing poorly compared to oneself • Choosing comparison targets who are performing poorly compared to oneself • Boosts selfesteem • Increases optimism, elevates goals Self-evaluation Maintenance (SEM) • People prefer to associate with individuals who do not outperform them in areas that are very relevant to their selfesteem Social Comparison and the Self If the students thought that the task was important, they judged their performance to be superior to that of their close friend. If the task was not important to them personally, they felt that they had performed relatively worse (Tesser, Campbell, & Smith, 1984). Joining Groups Personality Men and Women Social Motivation Anxiety and Attachment Attitudes, Experiences, Expectations Affiliation Social Comparison Attraction Principles of Attraction Newcomb (1960) offered 17 The Economics of young men starting their studies Membership at the University of Michigan freeComparison rent if they Social andanswered a the Self detailed survey of their attitudes, likes, and dislikes each week. Then he watched as the 17 students sorted themselves out into friendship pairs and distinct groups Stress and Affiliation Newcomb identified a small number of principles that explain when liking is more likely. Principles of Attraction Proximity Elaboration Similarity • People tend to like those who are situated nearby, in part because it increases familiarity and interaction • Groups often emerge when additional elements (people) become linked to the original members. • People like others who are similar to them in some way. In consequence, most groups tend toward increasing levels of homophily. Principles of Attraction Frequent online interactions increase attraction. A network view of relational elaboration Principles of Attraction Complementarity • People like others whose qualities complement their own qualities Reciprocity • Liking tends to be mutual Minimax • Individuals are attracted to groups that offer them maximum rewards and minimal costs. Schutz identified two key forms of compatibility: interchange compatibility (based on similarity) and originator compatibility (based on complementarity). The Economics of Membership Satisfaction is determined by comparison level (CL) Value of other groups determines comparison level for alternatives (CLalt) Review Joining Groups Personality Men and Women Affiliation Social Comparison Principles of Attraction Stress and Affiliation The Economics of Membership Social Motivation Anxiety and Attachment Attitudes, Experiences, Expectations Attraction Social Comparison and the Self Claude Monet (1840–1926), Nymphéas Henri Fantin-Latour (1836–1904) Around the Table The work of art depicted in these images and the reproduction thereof are in the public domain worldwide. The reproduction is part of a collection of reproductions compiled by The Yorck Project. The compilation copyright is held by Zenodot Verlagsgesellschaft mbH and licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.