Machiavelli - Radin Presentation - Slides

Beyond Machiavelli
Policy Analysis Reaches Midlife,
Second Edition
Beryl A. Radin
Presented by
Ian Roth
Overview & Key Concepts
John Nelson, Rita Stone & Veronica Lopez
9 Policy Analysis Organizations
Politics, Methodologies & Techniques,
Availability of Information, Shifts in Role
• Has Policy Analysis Reached Mid-Life?
“After more than
fifty years, the policy analysis field has taken
its place in the contemporary world of decision making. But it
is also clear that the original view of policy analysis as a
process of advising a prince or ruler – harking back to
Machiavelli – does not capture the complexity of the field
Key Concepts:
– Analyst/Client Relationship
– Dissemination of Policy Analysis
– Policy Analysis has radically changed & is continually
Biography: Beryl A. Radin, “Pracademic”
• Teaches at Georgetown University in Washington, DC.
• An elected member of National Academy of Public Administration
• Managing Editor of the Journal of Public Administration Research
and Theory from 2000 to 2005.
• Editor of the Georgetown University Press book series, Public
Management and Change.
• Special Advisor to the Assistant Secretary for Management and
Budget of the US Department of Health and Human Services
• Past president of the Association of Public Policy Analysis and
• Active in the American Political Science Association and the Public
Management Research Association
• John Gaus award from the American Political Science Association
• H. George Frederickson Award for Lifetime Achievement
• Donald Stone Award given by ASPA’s Intergovt. Management
• Senior Fulbright lecturer in India
• Teaching and research in Hong Kong, Israel, Azerbaijan & Australia
John Nelson - 1960s
• Economist – Stanford PhD 1959
Cost Benefit Analysis for procurement of Defense Weapons Systems
Recruited by RAND Corporation for DoD project
Joined Feds in DoD’s Planning, Programming & Budgeting System (PPBS)
Moved to Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare (HEW) with Alice Rivlin
“Legislative proposals were spun out almost daily”
Analysis – opportunities & costs of programs for elderly, children & women
Analytically irrational behavior vs. highly rational behavior
Returned to California to become a consultant to DoD
Military base closings up until 2000
Rita Stone - 1990s
• Child Care/Head Start – Duke University 1989 Undergrad
• 2 Year internship with Children’s Defense Fund (CDF)
• Graduate Studies at the University of Chicago
• Internship (in-between) with Assistant Secretary for Planning and
Evaluation (ASPE) at Department of Health & Human Services (HHS)
• Presidential Management Intern (PMI) with Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Management and Budget (ASMB)
• Joined ASMB as permanent staff
• Career in Office of Human Development Services in Child Care issues
Veronica Lopez - 2010s
• Grew up in Southern Texas, bilingual
Undergrad as Pre-med
Fellowship to Medical School
Specialized in infectious diseases involving children
After 2 years practice, back for a masters in Public Health – Epidemiology
Joined CDC in Atlanta, GA specializing in Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Involved with multiple data sources globally
Joined Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Joined Bill & Melinda Gates Fdn. as Dir. of Latin American Health Programs
Policy Analysis Organizations
• AARP Public Policy Institute: Policy analysis linked to
lobbying & membership
• Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning &
Evaluation (ASPE) in the Department of Health &
Human Services: A classic policy analysis shop that
changed over time
• California Legislative Analyst’s Office: Analysis in a
changing political environment
• Center on Budget & Policy Priorities: Analysis that
combines rigor with a point of view
• State Fiscal Analysis Initiative Network: Balancing
advocacy & analysis in the federal system
Policy Analysis Organizations
• Century Foundation: Research committed to solutions
& action
• Congressional Research Service of the Library of
Congress: Analysis linked to the intricacies of the
legislative process
• Danish National Centre for Social Research: Balancing
research & advising
• Heritage Foundation: Linking research, marketing &
Policy Analysis organizations are no longer just in the
federal government; they come in many shapes & sizes.
What Else?
• Politics & Analysis
– Decision maker vs. advisor
• Methodologies & Techniques
– Changes over time
• Availability of Information
– Simple to complex
• Shifts in Role
– Program proposal to cutbacks
Politics & Analysis
• Tension between role of decision maker vs. advisor
• Three branches of government – easier to kill a policy than
to make one.
• Electoral process puts political pressure on policy analysis.
• Partisanship does the same
– California LAOs & the Congressional Research Service
• Interest groups create politics
• Coalition building is a necessity for decisions to be made;
analysts are asked to reframe issues
• Policy analysis impact shifted to the margins of decisions
• Tensions between politics and analysis do and will exist.
Methodologies & Techniques
• John Nelson – produced reports, evaluations and
recommendations. Measurement.
• Rita Stone – Short 3-page analyses, briefings,
talking points; meetings; limited reading &
writing. Description.
• Veronica Lopez – reverse analysis: knowing what
action was needed, what did she need to know to
make a recommendation; data sets did not work
w/her populations; non-traditional. Judgment.
Availability of Information
Simple to complex
Federal sources
Special interest generated
Source of information
Information overload
Future of information
Shifts in Role
• From program proposal to fine tuning existing
• Limited space for action
• Specialization & networks
• Analyzing cutbacks - Relationship between
policy analysis and budget process
Has Policy Analysis Reached Mid-Life?
• An organization that practices policy analysis, and has a
political agenda, would be defined as an “issue
network” by Gen & Wright, and along with coalitions
and interest groups “is the most relevant unit of
analysis for understanding policy change (Sabatier,
1988), even more so than governmental players,
because it is the coalitions within these subsystems,
and their interactions with each other, that drive policy
change.” (Gen & Wright, 176).
• Policy analysis and the use of this powerful tool has
become understood by many, and will be embraced
and deployed by many more players, as we head into
the future.
From Beryl A. Radin
“Ian -- Thanks for your note. Its interesting that you
have picked up on my ambivalence about the future
of the policy analysis field. While I think it has
made a real contribution to decisionmaking, I'm not
sure that the current environment and future
developments will allow it to continue that
contribution. I have semi jokingly commented that
the third edition of the book may be
subtitled: Policy Analysis Dies. Let's hope I am
My best, Beryl Radin”

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