PPT - MinneTESOL

Report
2014 MELEd Conference
How Many Phonemes to Teach?
A Comparative Analysis of Phonetic Symbols in
Major Pronunciation Dictionaries and Textbooks
Vladimir Pavlov
Elena Stetsenko
University of Wisconsin-River Falls
University of Minnesota
[email protected]
[email protected]
Why are students confused?
Reason # 1: Dialects
William Labov, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. Atlas of North American English. www.atlas.mouton-
William Labov, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. Atlas of North American English. www.atlas.moutoncontent.com
There are two major shifts in the vowel systems
of American English that are taking place. One is
referred to as the Southern Vowel Shift…
That is compared to the Northern Cities Vowel
Shift, and this is sort of one of the stunning
aspects of American English dialects today, the
fact that Northern dialects are actually becoming
less like Southern dialects.
The reality is no, the Northern dialects are
actually becoming more different…
Walt Wolfram. Integrating Language Variation into TESOL: Challenges from English
Globalization. TESOL Webinar, October 13, 2011
William Labov, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. Atlas of North American English. www.atlas.moutoncontent.com
Walt Wolfram. Integrating Language Variation into TESOL: Challenges from English
Globalization. TESOL Webinar, October 13, 2011
William Labov, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. Atlas of North American English. www.atlas.moutoncontent.com
Walt Wolfram. Integrating Language Variation into TESOL: Challenges from English
Globalization. TESOL Webinar, October 13, 2011
There are two major shifts in the vowel systems
of American English that are taking place. One is
referred to as the Southern Vowel Shift…
That is compared to the Northern Cities Vowel
Shift, and this is sort of one of the stunning
aspects of American English dialects today, the
fact that Northern dialects are actually becoming
less like Southern dialects.
The Northern dialects are actually becoming
more different…
Walt Wolfram. Integrating Language Variation into TESOL: Challenges from English
Globalization. TESOL Webinar, October 13, 2011
standard variety
also standard dialect, standard language, standard
the variety of a language which has the highest status in a
community or nation and which is usually based on the
speech and writing of educated native speakers of the
language. A standard variety is generally:
a used in the news media and in literature
b described in dictionaries and grammars
c taught in schools and taught to non-native speakers
when they learn the language as a foreign language.
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 4th Edition, 2010
Reason # 2: Confusing numbers
Consonants: 19
Vowels: 26
www.merriam-webster.com
Total: 45
http://www.learnersdictionary.com
Consonants: 29
Vowels: 21
Total: 50
http://www.learnersdictionary.com
Consonants: 25
Vowels: 21
Total: 46
Jack Windsor Lewis
ELT Journal
http://eltj.oxfordjournals.or
g/content/53/3/225.extract
Consonants: 24
Vowels: (16*) 17
Total: 41
Consonants: 25
Vowels: 21
Total: 46
Reason # 3: Qualitative differences
Consonants
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
Consonants: 29
http://www.learnersdictionary.com
Phoneme
the smallest unit of sound in a language which can distinguish two words
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. 4 ed., 2010
Phoneme
the smallest unit of sound in a language which can distinguish two words
Allophone
any of the different variants of a phoneme. The different allophones of a
phoneme are perceptibly different but similar to each other, do not change
the meaning of a word, and occur in different phonetic environments that
can be stated in terms of phonological rules.
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. 4 ed., 2010
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
http://www.learnersdictionary.com
Consonants: 24
Teaching Pronunciation
Teaching Pronunciation
Teaching Pronunciation
Teaching Pronunciation
/y/=/j/
Consonants: 24
Harley, H. (2006). English Words: A Linguistic Introduction. Malden: Blackwell.
Daniel Jones EPD
Consonants: 24
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Consonants: 25
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Consonants: 25
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Consonants: 24
Vowels
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
Vowels: 21
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
Vowels: 20
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
Vowels: 15
Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary
Vowels: 15
Teaching Pronunciation
Vowels: 21
Teaching Pronunciation
Vowels: 21
Teaching Pronunciation
/y/=/j/
Consonants: 24
International Phonetic Association http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/index.html
Teaching Pronunciation
Vowels: 21
Teaching Pronunciation
Not in M-W Learner’s!
Vowels: 21
Teaching Pronunciation
Not in M-W Learner’s!
Teaching Pronunciation
Vowels: 17
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Vowels: 21
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Vowels: 21
Longman Pronunciation Dictionary
Vowels: 16
Jones EPD
Vowels: 17
Merriam-Webster Learner’s
ɪ
ɛ
æ
ʌ
ʊ
ə
i
ɑ
u
eɪ
oʊ
aʊ
aɪ
oɪ
ɚ
Teaching Pronunciation
ɪ
ɛ
æ
ʌ
ʊ
ə
i
ɑ
ɔ
uw
ey
ow
aw ay
y
ər
ɜr
Daniel Jones EPD
ɪ
e
æ
ʌ
ʊ
ə
i
ɑ
ɔ
u
eɪ
oʊ
aʊ
aɪ
ɔɪ
ɚ
ɝ
Longman Pronunciation
ɪ
e
æ
ʌ
ʊ
ə
i
ɑ
ɔ
u
eɪ
oʊ
aʊ
aɪ
ɔɪ
ɝ
/ ɑ / and / ɔ / are used in cot and caught, lot and law
Merriam-Webster Learner’s: bird /bɚd/
Longman: ər = ɚ
Vowels: 17
Consonants: 24
Bilabial
Plosive
Affricate
Fricative
Nasal
Lateral
approximant
Approximant
Labio-dental
Dental
p b
Post-alveolar
Palatal
t d
f v
m
Alveolar
θ ð
s z
n
Glottal
k g
tʃ dʒ
ʃ ʒ
h
ŋ
l
w
Velar
r
j
Vowels: 17
Thank you!

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