pea - Roots of Europe

Report
Guus Kroonen
Roots of Europe Course
25 November 2014
INSS, Roots of Europe Center, Copenhagen University
Discussion
• Roland Schuhmann (Univ. Jena): “No word
that can only be explained as a substrate
word.”
• Martin Haspelmath: “According to IndoEuropeanists, when a word can be either an
inherited word or a loanword, an IndoEuropean origin must always be preferred.”
Lexical Neolithic layer in Germanic
Regular IE
layer
(pastoral)
Irregular
non-IE layer
(agricultural)
‘FATHER’
‘WATER’
‘TEN’
‘WHEEL’
‘WAGON’
‘WHEAT’
‘HORSE’
‘GOOSEFOOT’
‘PEA’
‘CARROT’
‘RYE’
‘BEAN’
‘TURNIP’
The IE Homeland
Steppe
Hypothesis
Anatolia
Hypothesis
10.000 BP
7.800 BP
6.800 BP
5.700 BP
Prehistoric Northwest Europe
HUNTER-GATHERERS
(PWC 3.200-2.000 BCE)
FARMERS (FBC
4.100-2.800 BCE)
(Malmström
et al. 2009;
Kristiansen
2012: 179)
Human Archaeological DNA
(Skoglund 2012)
The Near East Founder Crops
Cereals
Pulses
Emmer wheat
Pea
Einkorn wheat
Lentil
Hulled barley
Chickpea
Bitter vetch
Flax
Barley
• Cultivation by 8000 in Israel
• Sacred grain in early Indic, Roman and
possibly also Germanic society
• *bariz- ‘barley’ (EUR?, IE?)
– ON barr, E barley < PIE ?*bhare/is
– Lat. fār ‘grain’ < PIE ?*bhars
– Ru. bórošno ‘ryemeal’ < PIE ?*bharos
– Alb. bar ‘grass’
– Oss. bor ‘millet’
• *bewwu- ‘corn?’ (IE)
– OE béow ‘corn’, ON bygg ‘barley’ < PIE *bheuH-
• *gerstō- ‘barley’ (EUR?, IE?)
– Lat hordeum ‘barley’ < ghrsd– G Gerste ‘barley’ < PIE ** ghersd
– ?Pers. zurt / zurd ‘kind of millet’
• Not here:
Alb drithë ‘cereal grain’, Gr. krīthḗ ‘barley’ <
PIE **ghriHdh-, Hittite karas < PIE *ḱers-
Emmer wheat
• Cultivation by 7500 in Anatolia
Einkorn wheat
• Cultivated by 7000 in Anatolia
• *terwō- ‘wheat?’ (IE)
– Skt. dū́ rvā- ’dūrvā grass’, Lith. dirvà f. 'field'
– MDu. terwe < PIE *derH-ueh2– E tare ‘wild or cultivated vetch’
• *hwaitja- ‘wheat’ (G)
– Go. ƕaiteis, ON hveiti < *hwīta- ’white’?
• *kurna- ‘corn’ (IE) < PIE *ģrh2-no-
Millet
• In Black Sea region around 5000
• Originally from China
• Possible to use for grazing
animals
• *hersjan- ‘millet’ (IE)
– Hitt. karaš- ‘wheat, emmer-wheat’
– G hirse ‘millet’
– Lat cerēs ‘bread, grain’,
– Kalasha karasha ‘millet’
Rye
• Cultivated 9000 in Syria
• Fell into disuse until the Nordic Bronze Age
• *rugi- ’rye’ (NEUR, NIE?)
– Lith rugỹs, Rus rož’, ON rugr, E rye < **rughi– Thrac. bríza < PIE **urughi-?
Oat
• Cultivated in Bronze Age Europe
• But with genetic links to the Middle East
• *habarō- ‘oat’ (NIE?)
– G Hafer < ?PIE **kopro– OIr. coirche < ?PIE **korkio-
• *aita- ‘oat, wild oat/oat grass’ (G)
– OHG eiza ‘oat’, OE át ‘oat’, wild oat (weed)’
Pea
• Domesticated by 7000 in Jordan and Anatolia
Chick pea
• Cultivated by
9000 in Syria
and Anatolia
Bitter Vetch
• Cultivated in Turkey between 7000-6000
• *arwīt- ‘pea’ (NIE)
– Lat ervum < PIE **h1erw– Gr. erébinthos ‘(chick)pea’ < PIE **h1erebhindh– OHG araweiz < PIE **h1or(o)wiHd– Gr. órobos ‘bitter vetch’ < PIE **h1orob-
Lentils
• Cultivation in Greece by 7000
• Not in Proto-Germanic:
– Gr. láthuros < PIE **ln̥dh-ur- / **ln̥th-ur– Lat. lēns, lentis < PIE **ln̥t(h)- (= G Linse)
Broad Bean
• In the eastern Mediterranean from 6000
• *baunō- ‘bean’ (NIE):
– Lat. faba, OPru. babo ‘bean’, Ru. bob < PIE
**bhabh– ON baun, E bean < PIE **bhaw-
Flax
• In use as fiber source since at least 30.000!
• Domesticated by 9000 in Syria
• *līna- ‘flax, linen’ (NIE):
– Gr. línon, Lat. līnum, W llin, Go. lein < PIE *liHn– Lith linaĩ, Ru. len’ < PIE **lin-
• *flahsa- ‘flax’ (G)
– OE fleax, OHG flahs (PIE *pleḱ- ‘to braid’?)
• *harzwa- ‘flax’ (G)
– ON hǫrr, OHG haro < *kors-uo- (PIE *kers- ‘to
card’, Lat. carrō, Lith. karšti
̃ )
Turnip
• Cultivated since
at least 1500 BC.
• No archaeological records
• Region of origin in the
eastern Mediterranean?
• *rōbōn-, rōbjōn- ‘turnip’ (NIE)
(h)
– Gr. ráp(h)us < PIE **rap
– Lat. rāpa, G Rübe < PIE **rāp
– W erfin < PIE **a-rp
– Ru. répa < PIE **rēp
Wild Carrot
• Beginning of cultivation unknown
• *murhōn- ‘(wild) carrot’ (EUR)
– Ru. morkóv’ ‘carrots’ < ?PIE *mrk– Gr. brákana ‘wild vegetables’ < ?PIE *mrk– ON mura ‘potentilla, wilde carrot’, OE more
‘carrot’ < ?PIE *mrk-
Saltbush, goosefoot
• Beginning of cultivation
unknown
• Was collected
by hunter-gatherers
• *maldjōn- ‘atriplex’ (NIE)
– Gr. blíton ‘purple amaranth’ < *mlit– OS maldia ‘saltbush, goosefoot’ < *malt-
What’s Indo-European in Germanic?
Cereals
Pulses
Emmer wheat
Pea
Einkorn wheat
Lentil
Hulled barley
Chickpea
Bitter vetch
Flax
secondary additions
Bean
Turnip
Orache
Carrot
6.000 BP
kurgans
5.500 BP
kurgans
5.000 BP
kurgans
4.500 BP
kurgans
kurgans
GERMANIC
kurgans
CELTIC
ITALIC
GREEK
agriculture
PROTO-INDOEUROPEAN
GERMANIC
CELTIC
ITALIC
GREEK
HYPOTHETICAL NEOLITHIC LAYER
SCAND.
C.EUR.
BALKANS
ANATOLIA
…
Comparing Neighboring Substrates
Item
Greek
pea
órobos <
ervum <
*orob- :
*erw
erébinthos <
*ereb-indh
G Erbse <
*orw-īd
sand
ámathos
: sabulum <
psámmathos *sadh: psámmos <
*sam(-n̥dh)
E sand,
MHG sampt
< *samdh-
gourd /
cucumber
lentil
Latin
cucurbita <
*kukurbit
láthuros
*ln̥dh-ur-
< lēns, lentis <
*ln̥t-
Celtic
Germanic
OE hwerwette <
*kʷerkʷád
(G Linse =
Lat. lent-)
Balto-Slavic
Comparing Neighboring Substrates
Item
Greek
bean
hemp
Latin
Celtic
faba <
*bhabh
kánnabis <
*kannabi
bison,
wisent
crayfish,
crab
kám(m)aros,
kábouros <
*kam(m)ar,
*kabar-
lead
mólubdos,
mólibos <
*molubd,
*molib
Germanic
Balto-Slavic
G Bohne <
*bhaw-(n)-
OCS bobъ <
*bhabh-
E hemp <
*kanabi
Ru. konoplja
< *kanapi
G Wisent <
*wi-sundh-
OPru. wissambras <
*wi-sombh
ON humar <
*kumar-
plumbum <
*plumdh-
lúaide <
ploud(h)-
G Blei <
*mlīw
Comparing Neighboring Substrates
Item
Greek
blackbird
Latin
Celtic
merula <
*mesal
W mwalch < G Amsel <
*mesal
*a-msl-
sturgeon
sedge
turnip
ore
clover
ráp(h)us <
*rap(h)
rāpa < *rāp
Germanic
Balto-Slavic
G Störe <
*str-
Ru. osëtr <
*a-setr
MIr. seisc <
*sesk-
E sedge <
*sak-
Ru. osóka <
*a-sak
W erfin <
*a-rp
G Rübe <
*rāp
Ru. répa <
*rēp
raudus <
*raud
OHG aruz <
*a-rud
OIr. seamar
< *semar-
ON smári <
*smēr
PROTO-INDOEUROPEAN
GERMANIC
HYPOTHETICAL NEOLITHIC LAYER
SCAND.
C.EUR.
BALKANS
ANATOLIA
Lexical Neolithic layer in Germanic
Regular IE
layer
(pastoral)
Irregular
non-IE layer
(agricultural)
‘FATHER’
‘WATER’
‘TEN’
‘WHEEL’
‘WAGON’
‘WHEAT’
‘HORSE’
‘GOOSEFOOT’
‘PEA’
‘CARROT’
‘RYE’
‘BEAN’
‘TURNIP’
Neolithic Northwest Europe
HUNTER-GATHERERS
(PWC 3.200-2.000 BCE)
FARMERS (FBC
4.100-2.600 BCE)
(Malmström
et al. 2009;
Kristiansen
2012: 179)
INDO-EUROPEAN
SPEECH / PRE-GMC

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