lecture-1 Introduction - Centre of Studies In Resources

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PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING
Lecture 1
Introduction
GROUND RULES
Assessments and Examinations:
•
Total marks: 100 (AP - 85; YSR – 15)
•
Distribution of my 85 marks:
•
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Mid-semester examination – 25
•
End-semester examination – 35
•
Assignments – 10
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Quizzes (3 + 1 unannounced) – 10
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Seminar - 5
Assignments and quiz would be distributed through out the semester.
GROUND RULES
Attendance:
•
Attendance would be taken; 85% attendance COMPULSARY
NO COMPROMISE ON PUNCTUALITY …………..
GROUND RULES
GROUND RULES
Lecture notes / Working folder
http://www.csre.iitb.ac.in/~alok/GNR603_2014/
COURSE OBJECTIVES
To understand:
- the physics, chemistry, and technology involved in remote sensing
- the techniques for preprocessing aerospace remote sensing images
(processing techniques will be covered in SIP course)
- panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing in
different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and to learn how to
interpret the images acquired using these sensors
In short, the primary objective is to provide the conceptual foundations and
technical skills to apply remote sensing to solve real-world problems.
COURSE CONTENTS
• History and development of remote sensing
• Electromagnetic radiation - nature and sources, interaction with matter
and atmosphere
• Atmospheric windows and effects, corrections
----------------- I Quiz
• Multispectral systems
• Characteristics of important remote sensing systems: LANDSAT, IRS,
ASTER, SPOT; High resolution sensors
• Hyperspectral systems
• Thermal systems
------------------- II Quiz
• Microwave systems
• Interpretations and applications - agriculture, forestry, land-use mapping,
geology, water resources etc etc.
… and Arial Photography/Photogrammetry.
------------------- III Quiz
A remote sensing image (Band 1 – B)
A remote sensing image (Band 2 – G)
A remote sensing image (Band 3 – R)
A remote sensing image (Band 4 – VNIR)
A remote sensing image (Band 6 – TIR)
A remote sensing image (TCC)
A remote sensing image (FCC 247)
A remote sensing image (FCC 234)
Remote sensing : Perspective
• Concept: what do we understand by remote sensing?
• Importance:
• Is it just pretty pictures or serious science?
• Does it add to our understanding of natural systems and resources?
• Applications to natural resources studies
Remote sensing : Concept
Acquisition of information about an
object without making physical contact
Earth: surface, atmosphere,
hydrosphere, cryosphere
planets
sun
stars; galaxies etc
Remote sensing : Concept
Most widely used remote sensors:
human eyes
• Motivation for remote sensing
systems
• Collection (eye), transmission
(optic nerve) and storage (brain)
• Cannot distribute the data though
Remote Sensing : Concept
• The sensor collects information within
its IFOV (resolution cell) without being
in direct physical contact with it.
• The sensor can be located on ground,
aircraft and spacecraft platforms.
Remote sensing : Concept
Technology, science and art of obtaining information about an object, area,
or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is
not in contact with the object, area or phenomenon under the investigation.
Technology : data collection
Science and technology : data processing and analysis
Science and art : data interpretation
Remote sensing : Concept
ASPRS formal definition of photogrammetry and remote sensing:
“the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about
physical objects and the environment, through the process of recording,
measuring and interpreting imagery and digital representations of energy
patterns derived from non-contact sensor systems.”
A Systems View of Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing
Passive
Reflected
light
Aerial
photography
Visible/near
IR/SWIR
imaging
Thermal
emission
Thermal
imaging
Active
Passive
Microwave
Passive
microwave
radiometry
Microwave
sounding
Visible/IR
Laser
Profiling
and Lidar
Active
Microwave
Altimetry,
Scatterometry
Synthetic
Aperture Radar
Remote Sensing Process
Science
goal
Data Acquisition
1) In situ measurements (GPS, bio-mass, soil
moisture, spectroradiometer, etc.)
2) Remote Sensing Data
(passive and active remote sensing )
Data processing and analysis Information
extraction
Visual interpretation
Digital Image Processing
Scientific Visualization
Types and classes of remote sensing data
Spatial
Information
Imagers
Altimeters
Sounders
Spectral Spectrometers
Information
(Polarimeters)
Scatterometers
Radiometers
Intensity
Information
Other types of remote sensing
Geophysical
Sonar
Advantages of Remote Sensing
• Data can be gathered from large areas of the Earth’s surface or
atmosphere in short space of time.
• In situ measurements are time consuming and costly over large areas.
Remote Sensing is considered as cost effective.
• No sampling bias - consistent coverage of the entire area
• Response of objects collected in different wavelengths
Limitations of Remote Sensing
• Often oversold
• Provides information only about the spectral properties of objects on the
earth’s surface (and their variation in time and space). We hope that the
spectral properties are proxies for the property we are interested in.
• Noise – atmospheric effects, topographic effects, soil/vegetation cover
• Often considered an end in it self (the pretty picture syndrome!) - remote
sensing should enhance scientific understanding of the system under study.
Applications of Remote Sensing
Atmosphere
Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Cryosphere
Planetary science
Land cover and land use
Military
.
Further Reading
Books :
• Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, Lillesand, Kiefer, Chipman, 2007
• Introduction to Remote Sensing, Campbell, 1996
• Remote Sensing : Principles and interpretation, Sabins, 1997
• Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, Rees, 2001
• Introduction to physics and techniques of remote sensing, Elachi, 1987
• Remote Sensing of the Environment : An earth resource perspective, Jensen , 2000
Journals :
• Remote Sensing of Environment
• International Journal of Remote Sensing
• IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing
• Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
• ISPRS
• ISPRS Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

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