Comm Training - Ohio Special Response Team

Report
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The following power point training
presentation must be viewed at
unit training and/or under the
supervision of an OSRT officer.
Members viewing the
presentation must sign an
OSRT sign in sheet. The
completed sign in sheet
signed by an officer must be
submitted to the OSRT
planning (Training) Section to
receive credit for the
training.
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Reference:
MRA 105-1, Para 1.3.g.ix
Radio Communication
ASTM f 2209 Para 6.10
Communication
Training PowerPoint slide program
prepared by Headquarters OSRT06Feb2014
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Purpose Of Communication
Training:
• Provide reliable and efficient
communication systems in support of
the OSRT and civil authorities in
response to man-made or natural
disasters.
• Conduct training in two-way radio
operations and procedures, non-radio
communications with aircraft, hand
signals and whistle communications
and landing zone setup for life flight.
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Purpose Of Communication
Training:



Provide communications needs of the OSRT
while following all Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) rules and regulations
governing two-way radio communications.
Conduct training in ground to air symbols,
hand and body signals, and aircraft
movements when a radio communications
link cannot be established between ground
and aircraft crews.
Conduct training in whistle communications
as used in search and rescue.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
 All FCC rules and regulations are to
be followed when using the unit’s
two-way radios.
 Radio communications allow
command and control of units in
the field.
 Radios are multi-channel and are
programmed with individually
assigned frequencies.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• Teams will be issued radios along with
channel assignment and their call sign
when being dispatched on a mission
• FORM 50-15 Temporary Issue
Receipt is to be completed as
equipment is issued.
• Call signs will remain unchanged during
the mission unless a change is ordered
by the Unit Commander.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• Channels can be changed by request of
the net operator or the Unit
Commander.
• The communications supervisor will be
responsible for setting up the
communications net.
• Each team will be called by the
supervisor in turn.
• As they respond to their call sign, they
will be admitted into the net.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• All radios must be of common
type and range.
• Radio transmissions can be
affected by:
 Weather
 Rolling terrain
 Distance
 Concrete buildings
 Power lines
 Electric generators
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• When transmitting on the radio,
first make sure you’re on the
proper channel, listen to be sure
channel is clear of any other
transmissions.
• If clear, depress the push to talk
button and begin speaking
clearly, indicating the call sign of
the station you want to talk to
followed by “this is” and your call
sign.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• Once communications are established,
complete your message.
• Breaks in transmissions are to be
followed by the word “over”.
• Station receiving and understanding the
message responds with the word
“roger”.
• The last transmission will be followed
by the call sign and the word “out”.
• Receiving station should ask for a
repeat of any part or the entire
message, if not understood. Use the
words, “say again”.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
Use the phonetic alphabet
when a word is or may be
misunderstood.

A
Alfa (or Alpha)
N
November
B
Bravo
O
Oscar
C
Charlie
P
Papa
D
Delta
Q
Quebec
E
Echo
R
Romeo
F
Foxtrot
S
Sierra
G
Golf
T
Tango
H
Hotel
U
Uniform
I
India
V
Victor
J
Juliet
W
Whiskey
K
Kilo
X
X-ray
L
Lima
Y
Yankee
M
Mike
Z
Zulu
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Radio Communications to Aircraft
• Give the scene location:
• Coordinates: can be cross roads or
GPS coordinates (usually in Lat. Long.
format)
• Landmarks (use N-S-E-W indicators)
• Report hazards (wires, towers,
buildings, other aircraft, etc.)
• Alert Life Flight when you have a
“visual” on the helicopter.
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Radio Operations and Procedures
• In case of equipment failure or total loss
of communications while on a mission,
the team leader should designate a
member of the team as a runner to
return the defective equipment to the
command post and exchange it for a
good unit.
• The communications supervisor will be
responsible for taking down the net
when the mission is complete.
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OSRT Capabilities
• Ohio Special Response Team has
purchased several frequencies from the
FCC. Our organizational radios have
been programed with these
frequencies.
• Anyone who has a valid Amateur Radio
Operator license may also have these
frequencies programed into their
personal radio if requested, to be used
during OSRT business only.
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OSRT Capabilities
• Ohio Special Response Team also has at
it’s disposal an aircraft radio, which
operates on a different frequency, to
facilitate communication with aircraft
should the need arise.
• In addition, we now have a repeater that
we can use to boost our output signal to
overcome limitations due to terrain and
structures. It operates on it’s own
frequency.
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Inventory Control
• Any known damage to radios or
batteries or lost equipment while in
the field should be reported to the
inventory clerk when being checked
in.
• Use Form 20-08 for lost or
damaged equipment in the field.
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Inventory Control
• Radios will be inspected for visible
damage as they are returned from
a mission. They will be cleaned,
repaired or replaced before re-issue
or being returned to inventory.
• All communications equipment will
be secured in a locked storage
room at the approved operations
center.
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Preventative Maintenance
• Radios and batteries are to be
inspected during quarterly inventory
and before being issued for a mission.
Batteries should be kept charged in
anticipation of a mission.
• Electrical contacts should be cleaned
with a pencil eraser and all fragments
wiped or blown clear. This procedure
is for the radio, battery, and charger.
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Preventative Maintenance
• Check the antennae for loose
connection, cut or worn insulation, and
breaks.
• Inspect all detachable
speaker/microphones for frayed cords,
cracked insulation, loose connections
and make sure clip bracket is in good
operable condition.
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Major Maintenance
• Should radios, speaker/microphones,
or chargers become defective and
need more trouble shooting and
maintenance than what can be
accomplished in preventative
maintenance, the equipment is
considered in need of major repair and
will need to be serviced by an
electronic technician.
• All major maintenance is to be
approved by the Unit Commander.
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Visual Signals
To and From Aircraft
• Since the OSRT is trained in search and
rescue techniques, this section will
cover signals that can be used when
unable to establish a communications
link between ground personnel and air
crews that may be involved in the
mission.
• This is not limited to search and rescue
missions but can be for any mission the
OSRT is required to initiate.
• Ground to air and air to ground are
included in this procedure.
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Visual Signals
To and From Aircraft
• Symbols can be constructed on the
ground to communicate the situation
to air crews.
• They can be constructed of any
material that contrasts with the
background.
• Some materials might include
undershirts torn into wide strips, rocks,
sticks, and foliage stripped from trees.
• These take time to prepare and should
be completed prior to aircraft arrival.
• All symbols should be large enough to
be seen by air crews –no less than eight
feet in length.
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Visual Signals
• Hand and body signals can also be
used to communicate with air crews.
This requires a shorter distance
between ground personnel and air
crews to avoid misunderstanding of
the signals.
• Only use them for the meaning
indicated. Do not use other signals
that may be confused with those
shown.
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Visual Signals
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Visual Signals
• Mirrors, flares, and smoke can be used
to gain the attention of the aircraft
crews.
• Aircraft crews can also communicate
to ground personnel by movements of
the wings and fuselage.
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Visual Signals
• The following shall indicate
understanding of the ground signal by
the aircrew: in daylight, by rocking the
wings left to right, and in darkness, by
flashing on and off the navigation
lights, landing lights or both.
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Visual Signals
• The following indicates the aircraft
has not understood the message: a
complete right hand turn,
completing a circle around the
ground personnel.
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Visual Signals
• The following indicates a “yes” or
affirmative reply: moving the nose
of the aircraft up and down.
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Visual Signals
• The following indicates a “no” or
negative reply: moving of the nose
of the aircraft left and right.
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Directing Ground Personnel
From Aircraft
• The following signals indicate actions
to be taken by ground personnel:
• Circling ground personnel once or
more and flying off in the desired
direction.
• This indicates to them that they
should follow in that direction.
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Directing Ground Personnel
From Aircraft
• To stop movement of ground
personnel or to gain their
attention, the aircraft will cross
their path at low altitude and rock
the wings left to right or throttle
up and down or both.
• To indicate an end to the
assistance to ground personnel,
the aircraft will cross behind at
low altitude and rock the wings
left to right or throttle up and
down or both.
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Ground to Ground Hand and
Arm Signals
• There will be times when the radio is
inoperable or radio silence has been
directed by the Commander.
• One of the most common types of
visual signals is arm and hand.
• Useful when distance is short but
background noise prevents normal
voice communications.
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Good Practices
•Use a quick shout or blow on the whistle to get
members attention (their name is a good place to
start) and then give them a visual signal.
•Repeat a received signal on to other members of
the group (unless it was specifically for you alone).
•You should ALWAYS check with the group what
signals mean what. There are many variants used
and nothing can be worse than receiving the wrong
instruction and getting into difficulty because of it.
•Return the signal to the sender to confirm it was
understood.
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Line of Sight
This is essential. Direct Line of Sight from
the leader to every member in the group is
not necessary, however every member
should be able to receive a message from
the member next to them.. In this way the
leader can quickly pass instructions to the
whole group.
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Basic Signals
STOP:
Clasp hands together at chin level.
Alternate stop – raise hand upward to full
extent of arm, palm to front. Hold
position until signal is understood.
Move
Forward:
Arms out stretched and then hands pointed
up, palms toward body. Repeat.
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Basic Signals
Move in
Reverse:
Face vehicle being signaled. Raise hands to
shoulder level, palms to front. Move hands
forward and backwards
Increase
Speed:
Raise fist to shoulder level, thrust fist
upward to full extent of arm, then back to
shoulder level (rapidly) several times
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Basic Signals
Advance or
Move Out:
Face direction of movement, extend arm to
rear and swing arm overhead.
Attention:
Extend arm sideways, slightly above
horizontal, palm to front; wave the arm to
and from above the head several times.
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Basic Signals
:I Understand
Hold fist out with thumb up.
I Do Not
Understand:
Place both hands across
face with palms to front.
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Basic Signals
Right Turn:
Extend right arm horizontally to
the side, palm to the front. The
left arm extended vertically.
Left Turn:
Extend left arm horizontally to the
side, palm to the front. The right
arm extended vertically.
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Rescue Three
International Signals
•
Hand signals for communication in rescue
situations with both victim and other rescuer:
• Need Help - Both arms crossed in front of the
chest. Used to request first aid help, or for a
medic kit to be sent.
• Okay - Both arms above head, hands together
forming an "O" above the head. Used as a
confirmation/agreement or to indicate "I am
OK."
• Need Assistance - One arm raised above the
head. Signified distress and requests rescue /
first aid.
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Whistle Communications
• The whistle is a valuable signaling device. The
whistle will carry for ½ to 2 miles or even more
in the wilderness. A whistle will also signal for
a much longer period of time versus your vocal
cords.
• The shrill blast of a whistle, repeated three
times, is a universal signal for help
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Whistle Communications
• The whistle sound is unmistakable among the
natural sounds of the forest. The direction of
the whistle sound is easier to detect versus
shouting which is easily dissipated by thick
vegetation.
• The whistle can be used in urban settings as a
means of defense by calling attention to one’s
self during an assault.
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Whistle Communications
• A whistle blast may deter an animal attack.
• A whistle can be the primary means of
communication or used as a backup when
radios fail or when ambient noises make them
unintelligible.
• For OSRT purposes, when searching for lost
persons, the signal for whistle use will be one
five second blast; wait one minute for a
response before re-using that signal.
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Responsibilities of the
Communications Supervisor
• Secure the equipment while in inventory and
any unissued equipment while in the field.
• Verifying the completion of all issued
receipts of equipment by units while in the
field.
• Set up and take down of a communications
net for each mission.
• Assigning call signs to teams as radios are
issued.
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Forms
• Temporary Issue Receipt
• FORM 50-15: used when the equipment
is needed for a short time only
• Request for Issue or Turn-in
• FORM 50-16: used for long term issuance
and for returning equipment
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Forms
• Equipment Issue
• FORM 50-24: used in the field when
equipment is issued to teams and is
submitted to Logistics by the unit having
possession
• Missing or Lost Equipment
• FORM 20-08: used by anyone reporting
missing or lost equipment. If lost in the
field, this form is to be completed as soon as
possible afterwards.
• Extra Battery Distribution
• Form 50-25: used for distribution of extra
radio battery.
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Forms
• Radio Communication Log
• FORM 50-23: used for each radio
transmission.
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Moving Forward
•
•
•
•
A – Automatic
P – Position
R – Reporting
S - System
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A.P.R.S. Operation
• Locator sends a signal packet with time,
location and identification at a
preselected interval to a repeater.
• Repeater sends information to another
radio which is connected to a computer.
• The information is placed on a map on
the computer showing location and
other information.
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Personal Locator
Hand held transceiver:
• Works through an Amateur radio using
GPS.
• Must be licensed.
• Uses Lat.- Long. format.
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Team or Group Locator
• Micro-Trak
• Uses a component device to transmit
the location.
• Need for a license is unclear at this
time.
• Unit is about 4” x 4” x 10”.
• Water and dust proof, will float.
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Conclusion
• Do you have any questions?
•
Thank You for your attention!

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