O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M The following power point training presentation must be viewed at unit training and/or under the supervision of an OSRT officer. Members viewing the presentation must sign an OSRT sign in sheet. The completed sign in sheet signed by an officer must be submitted to the OSRT planning (Training) Section to receive credit for the training. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Reference: MRA 105-1, Para 1.3.g.ix Radio Communication ASTM f 2209 Para 6.10 Communication Training PowerPoint slide program prepared by Headquarters OSRT06Feb2014 O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Purpose Of Communication Training: • Provide reliable and efficient communication systems in support of the OSRT and civil authorities in response to man-made or natural disasters. • Conduct training in two-way radio operations and procedures, non-radio communications with aircraft, hand signals and whistle communications and landing zone setup for life flight. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Purpose Of Communication Training: Provide communications needs of the OSRT while following all Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations governing two-way radio communications. Conduct training in ground to air symbols, hand and body signals, and aircraft movements when a radio communications link cannot be established between ground and aircraft crews. Conduct training in whistle communications as used in search and rescue. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures All FCC rules and regulations are to be followed when using the unit’s two-way radios. Radio communications allow command and control of units in the field. Radios are multi-channel and are programmed with individually assigned frequencies. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • Teams will be issued radios along with channel assignment and their call sign when being dispatched on a mission • FORM 50-15 Temporary Issue Receipt is to be completed as equipment is issued. • Call signs will remain unchanged during the mission unless a change is ordered by the Unit Commander. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • Channels can be changed by request of the net operator or the Unit Commander. • The communications supervisor will be responsible for setting up the communications net. • Each team will be called by the supervisor in turn. • As they respond to their call sign, they will be admitted into the net. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • All radios must be of common type and range. • Radio transmissions can be affected by: Weather Rolling terrain Distance Concrete buildings Power lines Electric generators O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • When transmitting on the radio, first make sure you’re on the proper channel, listen to be sure channel is clear of any other transmissions. • If clear, depress the push to talk button and begin speaking clearly, indicating the call sign of the station you want to talk to followed by “this is” and your call sign. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • Once communications are established, complete your message. • Breaks in transmissions are to be followed by the word “over”. • Station receiving and understanding the message responds with the word “roger”. • The last transmission will be followed by the call sign and the word “out”. • Receiving station should ask for a repeat of any part or the entire message, if not understood. Use the words, “say again”. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures Use the phonetic alphabet when a word is or may be misunderstood. A Alfa (or Alpha) N November B Bravo O Oscar C Charlie P Papa D Delta Q Quebec E Echo R Romeo F Foxtrot S Sierra G Golf T Tango H Hotel U Uniform I India V Victor J Juliet W Whiskey K Kilo X X-ray L Lima Y Yankee M Mike Z Zulu O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Communications to Aircraft • Give the scene location: • Coordinates: can be cross roads or GPS coordinates (usually in Lat. Long. format) • Landmarks (use N-S-E-W indicators) • Report hazards (wires, towers, buildings, other aircraft, etc.) • Alert Life Flight when you have a “visual” on the helicopter. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Radio Operations and Procedures • In case of equipment failure or total loss of communications while on a mission, the team leader should designate a member of the team as a runner to return the defective equipment to the command post and exchange it for a good unit. • The communications supervisor will be responsible for taking down the net when the mission is complete. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M OSRT Capabilities • Ohio Special Response Team has purchased several frequencies from the FCC. Our organizational radios have been programed with these frequencies. • Anyone who has a valid Amateur Radio Operator license may also have these frequencies programed into their personal radio if requested, to be used during OSRT business only. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M OSRT Capabilities • Ohio Special Response Team also has at it’s disposal an aircraft radio, which operates on a different frequency, to facilitate communication with aircraft should the need arise. • In addition, we now have a repeater that we can use to boost our output signal to overcome limitations due to terrain and structures. It operates on it’s own frequency. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Inventory Control • Any known damage to radios or batteries or lost equipment while in the field should be reported to the inventory clerk when being checked in. • Use Form 20-08 for lost or damaged equipment in the field. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Inventory Control • Radios will be inspected for visible damage as they are returned from a mission. They will be cleaned, repaired or replaced before re-issue or being returned to inventory. • All communications equipment will be secured in a locked storage room at the approved operations center. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Preventative Maintenance • Radios and batteries are to be inspected during quarterly inventory and before being issued for a mission. Batteries should be kept charged in anticipation of a mission. • Electrical contacts should be cleaned with a pencil eraser and all fragments wiped or blown clear. This procedure is for the radio, battery, and charger. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Preventative Maintenance • Check the antennae for loose connection, cut or worn insulation, and breaks. • Inspect all detachable speaker/microphones for frayed cords, cracked insulation, loose connections and make sure clip bracket is in good operable condition. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Major Maintenance • Should radios, speaker/microphones, or chargers become defective and need more trouble shooting and maintenance than what can be accomplished in preventative maintenance, the equipment is considered in need of major repair and will need to be serviced by an electronic technician. • All major maintenance is to be approved by the Unit Commander. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals To and From Aircraft • Since the OSRT is trained in search and rescue techniques, this section will cover signals that can be used when unable to establish a communications link between ground personnel and air crews that may be involved in the mission. • This is not limited to search and rescue missions but can be for any mission the OSRT is required to initiate. • Ground to air and air to ground are included in this procedure. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals To and From Aircraft • Symbols can be constructed on the ground to communicate the situation to air crews. • They can be constructed of any material that contrasts with the background. • Some materials might include undershirts torn into wide strips, rocks, sticks, and foliage stripped from trees. • These take time to prepare and should be completed prior to aircraft arrival. • All symbols should be large enough to be seen by air crews –no less than eight feet in length. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • Hand and body signals can also be used to communicate with air crews. This requires a shorter distance between ground personnel and air crews to avoid misunderstanding of the signals. • Only use them for the meaning indicated. Do not use other signals that may be confused with those shown. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • Mirrors, flares, and smoke can be used to gain the attention of the aircraft crews. • Aircraft crews can also communicate to ground personnel by movements of the wings and fuselage. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • The following shall indicate understanding of the ground signal by the aircrew: in daylight, by rocking the wings left to right, and in darkness, by flashing on and off the navigation lights, landing lights or both. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • The following indicates the aircraft has not understood the message: a complete right hand turn, completing a circle around the ground personnel. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • The following indicates a “yes” or affirmative reply: moving the nose of the aircraft up and down. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Visual Signals • The following indicates a “no” or negative reply: moving of the nose of the aircraft left and right. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Directing Ground Personnel From Aircraft • The following signals indicate actions to be taken by ground personnel: • Circling ground personnel once or more and flying off in the desired direction. • This indicates to them that they should follow in that direction. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Directing Ground Personnel From Aircraft • To stop movement of ground personnel or to gain their attention, the aircraft will cross their path at low altitude and rock the wings left to right or throttle up and down or both. • To indicate an end to the assistance to ground personnel, the aircraft will cross behind at low altitude and rock the wings left to right or throttle up and down or both. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Ground to Ground Hand and Arm Signals • There will be times when the radio is inoperable or radio silence has been directed by the Commander. • One of the most common types of visual signals is arm and hand. • Useful when distance is short but background noise prevents normal voice communications. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Good Practices •Use a quick shout or blow on the whistle to get members attention (their name is a good place to start) and then give them a visual signal. •Repeat a received signal on to other members of the group (unless it was specifically for you alone). •You should ALWAYS check with the group what signals mean what. There are many variants used and nothing can be worse than receiving the wrong instruction and getting into difficulty because of it. •Return the signal to the sender to confirm it was understood. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Line of Sight This is essential. Direct Line of Sight from the leader to every member in the group is not necessary, however every member should be able to receive a message from the member next to them.. In this way the leader can quickly pass instructions to the whole group. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Basic Signals STOP: Clasp hands together at chin level. Alternate stop – raise hand upward to full extent of arm, palm to front. Hold position until signal is understood. Move Forward: Arms out stretched and then hands pointed up, palms toward body. Repeat. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Basic Signals Move in Reverse: Face vehicle being signaled. Raise hands to shoulder level, palms to front. Move hands forward and backwards Increase Speed: Raise fist to shoulder level, thrust fist upward to full extent of arm, then back to shoulder level (rapidly) several times O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Basic Signals Advance or Move Out: Face direction of movement, extend arm to rear and swing arm overhead. Attention: Extend arm sideways, slightly above horizontal, palm to front; wave the arm to and from above the head several times. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Basic Signals :I Understand Hold fist out with thumb up. I Do Not Understand: Place both hands across face with palms to front. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Basic Signals Right Turn: Extend right arm horizontally to the side, palm to the front. The left arm extended vertically. Left Turn: Extend left arm horizontally to the side, palm to the front. The right arm extended vertically. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Rescue Three International Signals • Hand signals for communication in rescue situations with both victim and other rescuer: • Need Help - Both arms crossed in front of the chest. Used to request first aid help, or for a medic kit to be sent. • Okay - Both arms above head, hands together forming an "O" above the head. Used as a confirmation/agreement or to indicate "I am OK." • Need Assistance - One arm raised above the head. Signified distress and requests rescue / first aid. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Whistle Communications • The whistle is a valuable signaling device. The whistle will carry for ½ to 2 miles or even more in the wilderness. A whistle will also signal for a much longer period of time versus your vocal cords. • The shrill blast of a whistle, repeated three times, is a universal signal for help O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Whistle Communications • The whistle sound is unmistakable among the natural sounds of the forest. The direction of the whistle sound is easier to detect versus shouting which is easily dissipated by thick vegetation. • The whistle can be used in urban settings as a means of defense by calling attention to one’s self during an assault. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Whistle Communications • A whistle blast may deter an animal attack. • A whistle can be the primary means of communication or used as a backup when radios fail or when ambient noises make them unintelligible. • For OSRT purposes, when searching for lost persons, the signal for whistle use will be one five second blast; wait one minute for a response before re-using that signal. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Responsibilities of the Communications Supervisor • Secure the equipment while in inventory and any unissued equipment while in the field. • Verifying the completion of all issued receipts of equipment by units while in the field. • Set up and take down of a communications net for each mission. • Assigning call signs to teams as radios are issued. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Forms • Temporary Issue Receipt • FORM 50-15: used when the equipment is needed for a short time only • Request for Issue or Turn-in • FORM 50-16: used for long term issuance and for returning equipment O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Forms • Equipment Issue • FORM 50-24: used in the field when equipment is issued to teams and is submitted to Logistics by the unit having possession • Missing or Lost Equipment • FORM 20-08: used by anyone reporting missing or lost equipment. If lost in the field, this form is to be completed as soon as possible afterwards. • Extra Battery Distribution • Form 50-25: used for distribution of extra radio battery. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Forms • Radio Communication Log • FORM 50-23: used for each radio transmission. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Moving Forward • • • • A – Automatic P – Position R – Reporting S - System O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M A.P.R.S. Operation • Locator sends a signal packet with time, location and identification at a preselected interval to a repeater. • Repeater sends information to another radio which is connected to a computer. • The information is placed on a map on the computer showing location and other information. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Personal Locator Hand held transceiver: • Works through an Amateur radio using GPS. • Must be licensed. • Uses Lat.- Long. format. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Team or Group Locator • Micro-Trak • Uses a component device to transmit the location. • Need for a license is unclear at this time. • Unit is about 4” x 4” x 10”. • Water and dust proof, will float. O H I O S P E C I A L R E S P O N S E T E A M Conclusion • Do you have any questions? • Thank You for your attention!