Food Safety

Food Safety Terms
 Bacteria
• Tiny one-celled micro-organisms found
everywhere in the environment, also referred to as microbes.
• Some microbes are safe and can be eaten in the form of food
(examples are cheese and yogurt), but others are harmful and
need to be avoided because they can lead to food-borne illness.
 Food-borne Illness
• Illness caused by eating contaminated food, the source of which
is bacteria, viruses or parasites.
 Cross-Contamination
• The transfer of harmful bacteria from one food source to another,
or transferred to food from another source such as hands.
Food borne illness terms
• An incident of food borne illness that involves two or more
people who eat a common food, which is confirmed through
laboratory analysis as the source of the illness.
• Wholesome food, handles and prepares in a way that the food is
not contaminated with disease causing agents.
FBI Terms
• Free from VISIABLE soil
• Free from harmful levels of disease causing microorganisms and
other harmful contaminants
 Any food that consist in whole of part of milk,
milk products, shell, eggs, meats, fish, poultry,
baked or boiled potatoes, tofu and other soyprotein foods, plant foods that have been heat
treated, raw seeds or spouts, or synthetic
©2002 Learning Zone Express
©2002 Learning Zone Express
Types of Hazards
Biological Hazards
Bacteria are the greatest concern to food service
A Bacterium is: A living microorganism made up
of one cell
 Vegetative cell
• Capable of growing and reproducing
 Vegetative state
• The non-spore stage of some bacteria where growth and
reproduction occur.
 Spore
• A thick walled formation that is resistant to heat, cold and
chemicals. It can return to a vegetative state under the proper
Bacteria Reproduction
6 condition that promote bacteria growth
 Food
 Acidity
 Time
 Temperature
 Oxygen
 Moisture
Biological Hazards
Bacteria pose the greatest threat to food safety.
Under the right conditions a single bacteria will
double ever 0 to 30 minutes. One bacteria can
become billions in just 10-12 hours.
Biological Hazards
Bacteria pose the greatest threat to food
safety. Under the right conditions a
single bacteria will double ever 0 to 30
minutes. One bacteria can become
billions in just 10-12 hours.
Biological Hazards
Bacteria pose the greatest threat to food
safety. Under the right conditions a
single bacteria will double ever 0 to 30
minutes. One bacteria can become
billions in just 10-12 hours.
A Closer look at
 Pathogen
• Any disease Causing Agent
 Microorganisms
• A life form that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.
(bacteria, fungi, mold, parasite, yeasts, viruses)
Terms to know:
Food borne infection
• A disease resulting from eating food which contains living
harmful microorganisms
Food borne intoxication
• Results from consuming toxins, or poisons from bacterial or mold
growth present in ingested food.
Food borne Toxin Mediated Infections
• Infection resulting from eating food containing a large amount of
disease causing microorganisms.
Terms to know:
 Food poisoning
 A commonly misused term referring to various food-related illnesses
caused my microorganisms.
 Reservoir
 A host or carrier of disease causing organisms
 Host
 A person, animal or plant on which another organism lives and takes
 Carrier
 A person, or animal who harbors disease causing microorganisms in
their body without being noticeably affected.
Food-borne Illness
 According to the CDC (Center for Disease Control):
It is estimated that 76 million cases of food-borne illness occur
each year in the United States.
1 out of 4 Americans become infected with some form of
food-borne illness each year.
About 5,000 people die each year from food-borne illness.
 Some common types of food-borne illness include:
E. Coli
Norwalk & Norwalk like virus
Clostridium Botulinum (poisoning)
 Symptoms generally appear within 2-24 hours and
usually include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S. — occurring
more frequently in the summer months than in the winter.
 Found in:
• Undercooked poultry, unpasteurized (raw) milk, surface water
and mountain streams.
 Symptoms:
• Diarrhea (could be bloody), cramping,
abdominal pain, and sometimes nausea,
vomiting and/or fever within 2-5 days
after exposure.
Most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S. — occurring
more frequently in the summer months than in the winter.
 Prevention:
• Drink pasteurized milk.
• Cook meats thoroughly.
– Poultry breasts to 170° F., 180° F. for thigh meat.
Chicken should not be pink.
• Wash hands before and after handling raw meats.
• Carefully clean all cutting boards, countertops,
and utensils with soap & water.
• Wash hands after handling pets.
 Found in:
• Raw meats, poultry, eggs,
unpasteurized milk, fish, and
products made from them.
 Symptoms:
• Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps
12-72 hours after infection.
 Prevention:
• Cook foods thoroughly and serve
them while they are still hot (>140° F.).
• Keep cooking utensils and surfaces
clean while preparing foods.
• Promptly cool or freeze foods after
cooking or preparing them.
• Fully reheat stored foods.
• Wash your hands before and after handling and eating food.
• Avoid cross-contamination.
– For example, never cut up raw vegetables on a cutting board
previously used to cut chicken, unless the board AND cutting
utensils have been washed thoroughly in hot, soapy water.
E. Coli 0158:H7
 Found in:
• Undercooked ground beef, and unpasteurized
(raw) milk or milk products.
 Symptoms:
• Painful stomach cramps, and severe & bloody diarrhea. May
cause serious urinary tract and kidney infections.
 Prevention:
• Thoroughly cook meats.
• Drink pasteurized milk.
• Always keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
• Always wash your hands before and after handling food.
Norwalk & Norwalk-like Virus
 Found in:
• Human fecal matter, and contaminated shellfish.
 Symptoms:
• Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and sometimes
headache and low-grade fever.
 Prevention:
• Practice hand washing before/during working with foods.
– After touching a pet/animal.
– After using the bathroom.
• Do not prepare foods for others when
ill with diarrhea.
 Found in:
• Soft cheeses, deli salads, cold smoked fish,
hot dogs, deli meats, and unpasteurized (raw) milk.
 Symptoms:
• Fever, muscle aches, occasionally nausea or diarrhea. Can lead to
headache, stiff neck, confusion and loss of balance.
 Prevention:
• Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources.
• Wash raw vegetables thoroughly before eating.
• Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods made from raw milk.
• Wash hands, knives, and cutting boards after handling uncooked foods.
• Keep uncooked meats separate from other foods.
Clostridium Botulinum
 Found in:
• Contaminated home-canned foods.
• Improperly canned foods like meat,
poultry, fish, and most vegetables.
• Chopped garlic in oil, chili peppers, tomatoes improperly
handled, baked potatoes wrapped in foil, home-canned or
fermented fish.
 Symptoms:
• Overall muscle weakness, dry mouth, headache, double vision,
slurred speech, and difficulty swallowing ranging from 6 hrs. to
10 days after consumption of food with the toxin.
• Can be fatal.
Clostridium Botulinum
 Prevention:
• Do not eat food that is in a leaking,
bulging, or damaged can.
• Do not eat food that is in a cracked
jar or in a jar with a bulging lid.
• Follow strict procedures when home-canning foods. When
eating home-canned foods consider boiling food for 10 minutes
before eating.
• Refrigerate oils which are infused with garlic or herbs.
• Keep potatoes baked in foil hot until served or refrigerated.
Conditions for Bacterial Growth
 Food
• Bacteria need food to grow and multiply rapidly. They
prefer high-protein foods like meat, eggs, dairy products,
cooked vegetables, such as beans, and cooked grains, such
as rice.
 Water
• We can control bacterial growth by controlling water
available. Some foods are dehydrated like cereal.
 Temperature
• Bacteria rapidly multiply when between 40 to 140 degrees
Fahrenheit. This is known as the DANGER ZONE.
• Freezing and refrigerating will stop or slow growth, but it
will not kill bacteria.
 Time
• With favorable conditions, bacteria can double every
20 minutes.
• Risky foods left at room temperature for 2 hours or more are
unsafe to eat and should be discarded.
A group of micro-organisms that
includes molds and yeast. Fungi are
considered to be plants.
 Fuzzy appearance
 Spoil Food
 Reproduce by forming spores
 Spoils food
 Requires sugar and moistures
 Signs: bubbles, alcohol smell, slime, pink color.
Guarding against seafood-toxin
Acquire fresh, wholesome fish from a
reputable supplier.
Refuse fish that has been thawed and
refrozen (look for dried, pr dehydrated
appearance, excessive frost or ice, AKA
freezer burn.
Check temperatures
Thaw frozen fish quickly under
• Produced in fish
• Acquired from environment
– Ciguatera-(in predatory marine fish) vomiting, severe itching,
nausea, dizziness, hot and cold fish
– Scrombroid-(tuna, bluefish mackerel, mahi-mahi) flushing, and
sweating, facial rash, hives
 Plant
• Plants that have been accidentally used as a food source
Fava Beans
Rhubarb leaves
Water Hemlock
Jelly from apricot kernels
Mushroom—there is not sure method to tell which ones are toxin.
 Smallest Life form
 Not complete cells
 Require a “host” cell
 Do not require PHF
 Do not increase in number while they are in food
 Reproduce in human “hosts”
 5 types
• Pesticides
• Foodservice chemicals
• Additives and preservatives
• Acid/Metal Action
• Toxic metals
Agricultural pesticides
Accidental contamination in the food
service operation
• Preventions:
Purchase from reputable, legally
approved sources
Have a professional handle all pesticides
Store and label pesticides properly
Foodservice chemicals
 Detergents
 Polishes
 Caustics
 Cleaning and drying agents
Follow label directions for the use and storage of
these chemicals under safe conditions and away
from food.
 Sulfating agents
 Nitrites
 Irradiation
 GRAS chemicals
 Metal lined containers
• Contact with acidic foods
 Toxic metals
• Iron
• Copper
• Lead
Worn can openers
Packing Staples
CHIPS of broken Un-frilled
5 Steps to Food Safety
 To fight bacteria that cause food-borne illness,
follow these five steps to food safety.
1. Cook
– Cook meat, poultry & eggs thoroughly.
2. Separate
– Don’t cross-contaminate.
3. Chill
– Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Clean
– Wash produce, hands & surfaces.
5. Avoid
– Avoid foods from unsafe sources.
Cooking food safely is a matter of degrees!
Foods are properly cooked when they’re heated for a long enough time
and at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria.
 Ground Beef
Cook to a safe internal temperature of 160° F.
Meat should no longer be pink.
 Meat & Poultry
Cook until juices run clear.
– Roasts & steaks at least 145° F.
– Poultry 170° to 180° F.
 Eggs
Cook until the yolk and whites are firm.
Use only pasteurized eggs in recipes in which eggs
remain raw or partially cooked.
 Seafood
Cook fish until it is opaque and flakes easily with a fork.
 Leftovers
Reheat to an internal temperature of 165° F.
Bring sauces, soups and gravies to a boil.
 Combat Cross-Contamination!
• Safely separate raw meat and seafood from other foods in your
shopping cart and your refrigerator.
• Always wash hands, cutting boards, dishes and utensils after they
come in contact with raw meat, poultry, eggs and unwashed
• Place cooked food on a clean plate.
• Place raw foods in a sealed container
or plastic bags to prevent meat juices
from dripping on other food.
• Wipe up promptly meat juice spills
from all surfaces.
 Follow these COOL rules:
• Refrigerate prepared foods within 2 hours. Cold temperatures
keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
• Set your refrigerator at 40° F. (or less) and the freezer at 0° F.
• Divide large amounts of leftovers into small shallow containers
for quick cooling.
• Marinate foods in the refrigerator.
• Don’t pack the refrigerator too full. Cold
air must circulate to keep food safe.
• Use a cooler or ice pack to keep
perishable food cold, especially
on hot summer days.
• Thaw foods in the refrigerator, never at room temperature.
Wash hands and surfaces often.
 Wash Up!
Wash hands with hot, soapy water for at least 20 seconds before and after
handling food and after using the bathroom, handling pets or changing diapers.
Thoroughly scrub hands, wrists, and fingernails. Rinse and dry.
 Fruit & Veggies:
Wash raw produce under running water. Use a small vegetable brush to remove
surface dirt.
Cut away any damaged or bruised area on product.
Bacteria thrive in these places.
 Surface Cleaning:
Use paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces
so germs can be thrown away.
Wash cutting boards, counters and all utensils
with hot, soapy water after preparing each
food item to avoid cross-contamination.
Wipe up spills in the refrigerator immediately.
Avoid Risky Foods
 Risky foods are those that are most likely to
produce a food-borne illness.
 Risky foods include:
• Foods from an animal source (both raw and cooked).
• Raw meat, poultry, eggs, milk (unpasteurized) and shellfish.
• Raw fruits & vegetables which have been processed
in unsanitary conditions (especially sprouts
and unpasteurized fruit juices).
• Cut melons.
• Unpasteurized dairy products (soft cheeses).
Product Dates & Recommendations
 “Sell-by” Date
• Tells the retailer how long to keep a product out for sale.
• It is recommended that the product be used within a few days of
this date for maximum freshness (flavor, aroma & appearance).
 “Use-by” Date
• Tells the consumer the final date by
which to use the product.
• A recommended date for the product
to be used for quality flavor,
aroma & appearance.
Product dates and recommendations are only
reliable if food has been kept at a proper
temperature during storing and handling.
You’re the Expert
 You have been hired as a restaurant critic for
a local newspaper. You visit a restaurant and although you
have no complaints on the taste of the food, you notice some
disturbing food preparation methods. You find that food is
left out on the counter for several hours, employees rarely
wash their hands between handling different types of food,
and utensils are not always properly washed between uses.
 Write an article based on your experience at the restaurant.
Include suggestions you would give to the restaurant on ways
to prevent food-borne illness, as well as the dangers of their
bad habits.
Applying What You Know
Pick one of the following assignments to be completed outside of class.
1. Create a Food Safety poster to be placed in a
restaurant kitchen. Include pictures and descriptions
of ways to ensure food safety using the “4 Steps to
Food Safety”.
2. Research a food-borne illness and write a 1-2 page
report on your findings. Be sure to include causes of
the illness, health effects, and prevention tips.
3. Write a song or poem that describes one part of
food safety. Your song or poem can be about washing
your hands, cleaning foods, food storage, etc. Share
your song or poem with the class.
Exploring the Web
 Here are some suggested sites you and your class
may want to investigate for more information on food safety.
– Information from the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety
and Inspection Service.
– Information from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
– Tips on how to prevent Foodborne illnesses in your own home.
– Information on common Foodborne diseases and prevention.
– Information at the Center for Disease Control.

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