Webinar - United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

Report
USCCB Webinar on
Resources for Prevention of
Sexual Abuse
Presented by Sr. Katarina Schuth, O.S.F., Ph.D.
St. Paul Seminary School of Divinity
University of St. Thomas
St. Paul, Minnesota
October 6, 2014
1
Main Sources of Data
Reports presented to the United States Conference of
Catholic Bishops by the John Jay College Research
Team, The City University of New York*
• The Causes and Context of Sexual Abuse of Minors
by Catholic Priests in the United States, 1950-2010,
March, 2011
• The Nature and Scope of Sexual Abuse of Minors by
Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States,
1950-2002, February 2004
* The two reports are based on data supplied by 97 percent of U.S.
archdioceses and dioceses on all clergy accused of sexual abuse of minors
2
Overview of Modules
• Modules A through G are intended for several different
audiences, with emphasis noted on each module. They include:
- Dioceses and Parishes,
- Seminary Faculty and Seminary Students
• Module J outlines “Promise to Protect – Pledge to Heal,”
the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young
People, Essential Norms, and Statement of Episcopal
Commitment. It is intended for all audiences.
• Modules K through O are intended primarily for dioceses
and parishes, with emphasis noted on each module.
N.B. There are no modules H and I.
3
Module A: Background and Responses to
Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests
in the United States
(Parishes, Dioceses, and Seminaries)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Causes and Context of Abuse – Methodology
Timeframes and Extent of Abuse
Development of the Five Principles
Ongoing Concerns about Sexual Abuse
4
A. Causes and Context – Methodology, 1
•
Analysis of clinical data from the files from three treatment
centers, including information about priests who abused
minors as well as those being treated for other behavioral
problems (individual/psychological analysis)
•
Analysis of seminary attendance, history and the
development of a human formation curriculum, as well as
information from seminary leaders (seminary analysis)
•
Interview and primary data from the 1971 Loyola University
study of the psychology of American Catholic priests
(baseline study of priests at the peak of the abuse crisis)
5
Methodology, 2
•
Surveys of survivors, victim assistance coordinators and
clinical files about the onset, persistence and desistance of
abuse behavior (victim and situational analysis)
•
Surveys of bishops, priests and other diocesan leaders
about the policies that were put in place after 1985
(leadership analysis)
•
Surveys of and interviews with inactive priests with
allegations of abuse, and a comparison sample of priests in
active parish ministry who had not been accused (identity
and behavior survey)
6
B. Timeframe and Distribution of
Incidences of Abuse
Sources: John Jay Studies, (JJC) 1950-2002, & CARA, 2004-2008)
2000
1800
CARA
1600
1400
JJC
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1954 or 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 1970-1974 1975-1979 1980-1984 1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2002 2004-2008
Earlier
7
The Extent of Abuse
16,321
Total credible accusations in which the
date of abuse is known through 2013
Although widely believed to be a significant ongoing
problem, most abuse occurred between 1960 and
1984 (74.6%); after that year the numbers dropped
substantially and remain low
7.4% of abuse took place after 1990
217
New cases reported that occurred from
2004 to the present – 2013 (1.3%)
Nevertheless, every case of sexual abuse is a tragedy
8
New Credible Allegations of Sexual Abuse
Occurring in the Year of the Report from 2004 to 2013
Allegations
Diocesan
Priests
Religious
Priests
Total
2013
9
1
10
2012
11
1
12
2011
21
2
23
2010
7
0
7
2009
6
0
2008
10
3
13
2007
4
1
5
2006
14
3
17
2005
9
0
9
2004
19
1
20 (2004-07 = 64)
TOTAL
110
12
122*
Year
6 (2008-13 = 58)
* Besides the annual new cases, 95 others were reported from 2004 and 2013 to equal 217.
Source: CARA Annual Survey of Allegations and Costs (by year of occurrence)
9
Total Credible Allegations of Sexual Abuse Reported from
2004 to 2013
Allegations
Diocesan
Priests
Religious
Priests
Total
2013*
370
94
464
2012
397
74
471
2011
495
99
594
2010
428
77
505
2009
398
115
513 (2008-13 = 2,547)
2008
625
178
803
2007
599
92
691
2006
635
79
714
2005
695
88
783
2004
898
194
1,092 (2004-07= 4,083)
TOTAL
5,540
1,090
6,630*
Year
* Includes all allegations reported for the first time in each year; all except 217 occurred before 2004.
Source: CARA Annual Survey of Allegations (by year of occurrence)
10
C. Development of the Five Principles
• 1985 – 1995: The issue of
sexual abuse is discussed
annually at meetings of
the bishops; expert
presentations given
• Leadership from Cardinal
Bernardin, Archdiocese of
Chicago, importance of lay
review boards stressed
• Work of the Ad Hoc
Committee resulted in
publication of Restoring
Trust and other changes
• Use of treatment continues,
with extensive communication
with treatment centers (surveys
of treatment centers; reports to
dioceses on priests referred for
treatment provided)
• Growing advocacy for victims
from organized groups of those
who had been abused; included
priests who had been abused
• Most dioceses had codified the
Five Principles by mid-1990s;
about 50% had review boards
11
Problems with the Implementation
of the Five Principles, 1990 - 2002
• Diocesan leaders in many
instances failed to meet
with victims directly
• Reports from family
members did not result in
any follow-up from the
diocese
• Priests were sent for
treatment, then returned to
service; parishes were not
notified of the history of
abuse
• Communication took place
with civil authorities only in
the most severe cases of
repeated abuse
• Diocesan leaders who gave
testimony under oath in
civil cases denied the
substance of the Five
Principles
• Focus was on outcomes for
priests, but lacked
recognition of responsibility
for harm to victims
12
D. Ongoing Concerns about Sexual Abuse
Sexual abuse is a dynamic issue, an ongoing
problem; the harm of even one case is not to
be underestimated
“The problem of sexual abuse has not been fixed”
• Potential rise in abuse may be related to
pornography, which is a potential predictor of abuse;
it is done in privacy and more difficult to identify
• Objectification of the person, such as use of children
in pornographic materials, is not victimless
13
Module B: Church and Seminary
Responses to Sexual Abuse of Minors by
Catholic Priests in the United States
(Primarily for Seminaries and
Also Parts for Parishes and Dioceses)
A. Church Directives on Formation for Celibacy and
Sexuality in Seminaries
B. Phases of Reports and Responses
C. Responses to Sexual Abuse by the Bishops’ Conference
14
A. Church Directives on Formation for
Celibacy and Sexuality
Pope John Paul II’s Pastores dabo vobis, 1992
• Introduced for the first time a section on human formation
(#43), insisting that “the whole work of priestly formation
would be deprived of its necessary foundation if it lacked a
suitable human formation”
The Program of Priestly Formation
• Guided seminaries on every aspect of preparing future priests
and was issued five times by American bishops between 1971
and 2005
15
B. Phases of Reports and Responses
• Early reports of a few incidents; clergy sexual abuse considered
an anomaly; little response
• Still limited reports of incidents; little official response;
seminaries developed some programmatic elements on celibacy
and sexuality
• More reports of clergy sexual misconduct came to light, with
some response by bishops, more response by seminaries
• Outpouring of reports of clergy sexual abuse resulted in extensive
response by both church officials and seminaries
16
C. Responses by the Bishops’ Conference
Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People
• Developed from work of the Ad Hoc Committee on
Sexual Abuse, entitled Restoring Trust, 1994 Reports
• “Essential Norms” were approved in 2002 and were
published as the second part of what is commonly
called “The Charter” or “The Dallas Charter”
• “The Charter” was approved by U.S. Bishops in revised
form in 2005
• “The Charter” was revised and approved for a second
time in 2011
17
Module C: Research Explaining
Susceptibility and Possible Causes of
Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests
(For Seminaries, Parishes, and Dioceses)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Susceptibility and Possible “Causes” of Abuse
Behavioral Explanations – Intimacy Deficits
Some Controversial Findings in the John Jay Report
Some Key Findings of the Report
18
A. Susceptibility
and Possible “Causes” of Abuse
• Before examining factors that relate to sexual
abuse, it is important to note that no single
“cause” of sexual abuse of minors in the Catholic
Church has been identified as a result of the John
Jay research, nor is there a single cause in the
general population
• However, it is critical to understand, for individual
priests who abused minors, many organizational,
psychological, and situational factors contributed
to their susceptibility to perpetrate abuse
19
Progression of Risk Factors Related to Abuse
• Early Factors
 Victim of sexual abuse as a child or young adult
 Early sexual experience
 Low self-esteem and social isolation
• Formational Factors
 Intimacy deficits and lack of healthy emotional
relationships
 Confused sexual identity
 Theological misunderstandings
• Situational Factors
 Inappropriate relief from stress, such as alcohol abuse
 Loss of support structures during times of transition
20
B. Behavioral Explanations
Clinicians and behavioral theorists observe the
following impacts of childhood experience and
learned behavior on adult lives
• If a youth or child is a victim of sexual abuse by an
adult, his capacity for emotional attachment and
sexual response as an adult may be impaired
• Early sexual experience is thought to have an
influence on subsequent sexual behavior
• Low self-esteem and social isolation are considered
to be associated with child sexual abuse
21
Intimacy Deficits in Priests
Accused of Sexual Abuse of Minors
• Intimacy deficits are weaknesses or difficulties in
developing healthy emotional relationships with
others
• Intimacy deficits increase susceptibility to deviant
sexual behavior, due in part to lack of openness and
honesty in relationships with mentors and peers
• In cohorts of priests ordained between 1940 and
1960, intimacy deficits were pronounced and sexual
abuse of minors was most numerous
22
Other Factors: Stress and Abuse
Transition from seminary to parish life may
induce high levels of stress in some priests
• These situational stressors can lead to higher
levels of susceptibility to abuse, and though they
do not “cause” abuse, they may serve as “triggers”
• These stressors also may lead to reactive behavior
to relieve stress, such as high levels of alcohol use,
which could in turn act to decrease inhibitions that
allow abuse to occur
23
Theological Misunderstanding
and Sexual Abuse
Priest-abusers managed their identity in relation to
acts of abuse by using the image of “sinner-self”
• Their understanding of their fallibility (sinfulness) and
the possibility of forgiveness in confession mean that,
having received the Sacrament of Reconciliation, their
relationship with God was restored, without
reference to victims
• Often related to intense narcissism, only many years
after the acts of abuse took place, did they come to
understand the impact of their behavior on victims
24
C. Some Controversial Findings
in the John Jay Report
Celibacy and Sexual Abuse of Minors
Homosexuality and Sexual Abuse of Minors
Sexual Abuse by Age and Gender
Social Influences on Sexual Behavior
25
Celibacy and Sexual Abuse of Minors
• Given the continuous requirement of priestly
celibacy over a long period of time, it is not clear
why the commitment to celibate chastity should be
seen as a cause for the steady rise in incidence of
sexual abuse between 1950 and 1980
• This view is supported by the statistical observation
that the vast majority of incidences of sexual abuse
of children are committed by men who are not
celibates
26
Homosexuality and Sexual Abuse of Minors
•
Homosexual orientation alone is not a significant predictor
of sexual abuse of minors, a finding consistent with academic
research
•
Sexual abuse by individual priests was often varied –
victims included both genders, and adults and youth of
various ages
•
Sexual experience – heterosexual or homosexual – before
ordination predicts sexual misconduct after ordination, but
with adults – not minors
•
Those who hold that homosexuality has a greater role in
determining susceptibility to sexual abuse of minors maintain
that the relatively high proportion of male victims (81%)
implies that conclusion
27
Sexual Abuse by Age and Gender
Overall gender and age distribution of victims
*Gender - Males = 81 percent
Females = 19 percent
*Based on the Nature and Scope data
*Age - Under age 7 = 6 percent
8 to 10 = 16 percent
11 to 14 = 51 percent
15 to 17 = 27 percent
Pedophilia is a clinical diagnosis characterized by sexual attraction to
prepubescent children
Ephebophilia is defined as sexual attraction to pubescent or postpubescent
children.
Clinical diagnoses categorize the type of sexual abuse according to
behaviors and not merely according to age. The percentage of priests
who are identified as pedophiles is disputed by those who say that it
should be higher than reported in Causes and Contexts. This view differs
because of the definition being based only on age, often as high as 14.
28
Social Influences on Sexual Behavior
Norms of sexual behavior were changed in the 1960s,
for example
• The representation of sexuality was contested and
the depiction of sexuality became more graphic
• Sexual behavior among young people became more
open and diverse
These and other social changes can be understood as a
new “valuation” of the individual person and fostered
the exploration and pursuit of individual happiness
and satisfaction, sometimes in the form of what we
now understand as sexual abuse
29
D. Some Key Findings
No single “cause” of sexual abuse of minors by
Catholic priests has been identified; however:
 Priests with intimacy deficits and an absence of
close personal relationships before and during
seminary were more likely to abuse minors
 Low self-esteem and social isolation are
associated with child sexual abuse
 Abusive priests created opportunities to be alone
with minors and often integrated themselves into
the family, then arranged to be alone with a child
 Organizational, psychological, and situational
factors contributed to their susceptibility to abuse
30
Module D: Situational and Organizational
Factors Related to Sexual Abuse of Minors
by Catholic Priests
(For Seminary Students and Faculty,
Parishes and Dioceses)
A. Settings Where Victims First Met Priests Who
Abused Them
B. Physical Locations of Abuse
C. Circumstances/Timing of Abuse
D. Priest’s Primary Duty or Role at Time of Abuse
31
A. Settings Where Victims First Met
Priests Who Abused Them
Location of First Meeting
% Male Victims
% Female Victims
A. Church/Parish Related
64.8
58.9
B. School/Teacher
15.1
13.6
C. Home of Victim or Relative of Victim
4.9
14.2
D. Other Institutions
7.8
7.3
E. Other
7.1
6.2
99.7
100.2
Total
* % Based on Nature and Scope and victim survey of 7,142 boys and 1,762 girls.
32
B. Physical Locations of Abuse
Location of Abuse
% Male Victims
% Female Victims
A. Church/Parish Related
65.8
62.7
B. Residences
59.0
47.0
C. Other Locations
30.5
25.4
Note well: Clergy sexual abuse occurs in multiple settings
 Most frequently it is in church-related locations
 A wide range of residential contexts are used
 Other public and private venues also are exploited
33
C. Circumstances/Timing of Abuse
Circumstances/Timing
% Male Victims
% Female Victims
A. Church/Parish Related
27.1
27.8
B. Social Event/Other Recreation
42.2
40.8
C. Other
14.4
16.2
83.7
84.8
Total
* Categories are not mutually exclusive, as victims may have experienced abuse in
more than one location.
34
D. Priest’s Primary Duty or Role
at Time of Abuse
Duty or Role
% Male Victims
% Female Victims
77.2
80.2
B. Other Clerical Role
6.7
5.6
C. School/Teaching Role
8.7
5.6
D. Other
7.4
8.6
100.0
100.0
A. Pastoral/Parish Related
Total
* Based on Nature and Scope victim surveys of 7,864 boys and 1,863 girls.
35
Additional Observations Related to Situational and
Organizational Circumstances, 1
To prevent or identify abuse, education of
potential victims, potential abusers, and potential
“guardians” is essential since abuse can occur
when these three factors exist:
•
•
•
a person who is motivated to commit the act of abuse
a potential victim
lack of a “capable guardian”
A capable guardian is one who has oversight and
awareness of a child’s wellbeing, most often parents
36
Additional Observations Related to Situational and
Organizational Circumstances, 2
Precautions to lessen conditions for sexual abuse to
occur during meetings with children:
• Do not meet alone with a child in a closed room without windows
• Have two adults present when meeting a child whenever possible
• Have cameras installed in rooms where meetings take place
Keep in mind:
• An abuser is likely to be considered “a very good person”
• Many priests who were accused of sexual abuse were in
other ways excellent in carrying out their ministry
37
Module E: Typologies of Child Sexual Abusers
(Primarily for Dioceses and Seminary
Formation Faculty and Administrators)
Typologies of Child Sexual Abusers in General and
Clergy Sexual Abusers in Particular
A. Fixated Typology
B. Regressed Typology
C. *FBI Typologies of Situational Offenders
D. *FBI Typologies of Preferential Offenders
E. Personality Characteristics of Clergy Offenders
*For details on FBI Typologies, see complete Module E
38
A. Fixated Offenders: Definition
• From adolescence onward, fixated offenders
have persistent, continual, and compulsive
attraction exclusively to children
• They are usually diagnosed with pedophilia,
(recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies
of at least six months in duration involving
prepubescent children), or show characteristics
of ephebophilia, which is attraction to
adolescents
39
B. Regressed Offenders: Definition
• Regressed offenders often begin offending in
adulthood
• Their offenses are triggered by stressors in the
environment, which undermine self-esteem and
confidence, and from disordered childhood
relationships
• They are not necessarily motivated by sexual
needs alone
Some 90 to 95% of child sexual abusers do not have a
diagnosis of pedophilia and fit within a regressed typology
40
Some researchers have concluded that clergy offenders are
unique compared to offenders within the general population
•
One review of literature maintained that clergy offenders
displayed shyness, loneliness, and passivity
•
MMPI scores illustrated the presence of depression,
authority concerns, and addiction problems
•
Rorschach results indicated greater affect constriction
than normal
•
Offending clergy exhibited the presence of overcontrolled hostility more than non-offending clergy
41
Personality Characteristics of
Clergy Offenders, 2
One of the specific clergy studies found that offenders came
from backgrounds:
•
Characterized by rigidity and dysfunction with themes of
abuse
•
Had little insight into these areas
•
Had insufficient training in the issue of transference/counter
transference
•
Had virtually no training or education concerning sexual
abuse, domestic violence, addictive disease, or healthy
professional boundaries, and
•
Failed to appreciate how their history of trauma affected
their professional life
42
Module F: Understanding the Sexual
Victimization of Children
(For Seminary Faculty and Students,
Parishes and Dioceses)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sexual Abuse Victims
Onset of Sexual Abuse
Grooming Behavior
Persistence of Abuse – Excuses,
Justifications, and Disavowal
E. Desistance from Abuse
43
A. Sexual Abuse Victims
Who Were the Minors Abused by Priests?
Gender:
Male = 81%
Female = 19%
Age:
Under 10
11 to 14
15 to 17
=
=
=
22%
51%
27%
44
B. Onset of Abuse, 1: Preconditions
• The motivation to sexually abuse, for example,
emotional congruence, sexual arousal, or
blockage to “normal” sexual relationships
• The ability to overcome internal inhibitions
• The ability to overcome external factors that
may prevent the abuse
• The ability to overcome the child’s resistance
to the abuse
45
Onset of Abuse, 2: Relevant Factors for Priests
Priest-abusers were likely to have experienced
some of the following:
 Poor relationships with their parents when
they were youths
 A history of sexual abuse
 Isolation, loneliness, insecurity, poor social
skills, lack of identity
 Confusion over sexual identity, psychosexual
immaturity
 Alcohol abuse
46
C. Grooming Behavior
Grooming is a pre-meditated behavior intended
to manipulate a potential victim into complying
with sexual abuse
• Examples of various tactics or methods used to
entice victims:
 seduction or manipulation
 building of personal and family relationships
 providing “benefits” such as drugs, alcohol, or
pornography, money, or other gifts, tickets to
sporting events, or taking them on trips
 verbal or physical intimidation
47
D. Persistence of Abuse: Categories
Mechanisms used to alleviate feelings of guilt
and shame, thus enabling offenders to commit
acts of abuse, are called
neutralization techniques
Three categories:
• Excuses for behavior
• Justifications for behavior
• Deviance disavowal
48
Excuses for Behavior, 1:
Denial of Responsibility
• Accused priests denied responsibility by making
claims that
 They were “not well” (using or addicted to
substances such as alcohol and/or drugs)
 They were compelled by “sick” or “sinful”
impulses
• Forces beyond their control allowed them to
deny full responsibility for their behavior, similar
to legal claims of diminished capacity
49
Excuses for Behavior, 2:
Denying the Victim
• Accused priests denied the victim his or her status
by claiming that
 the victim participated by being seductive or
precocious, or
 the victim did not fight back or say anything
during the abuse
• Accused priests blamed the victim or the victim’s
family for setting up conditions that allowed abuse
to occur by inviting him into their home, engaging
him socially, and including him as part of the family
50
Justifications for Behavior, 1
• Accused priests justified their actions by
 Diminishing the wrongfulness of the behavior
 Deflecting the harmfulness of the actions
 Placing the responsibility for the deviance on
others, sometimes actually condemning the
condemners or criticizing their accusers
• Accused priests downplayed what actually
occurred or used positive language surrounding
the “relationship” between themselves and the
victim
51
Justifications, 2: Minimization of Harm
Many priest-abusers explained their actions as
being part of “a relationship,” “not sex,” or that it
“happened only once,” or “occurred long ago”
• Viewed the sexual behavior as consensual, not
harmful, and any behavior short of intercourse as
not wrong because it was not sex
• Insinuated that a single incident of sexual behavior
was not harmful; only repetitive acts caused harm
• Implied that the harm should be forgotten
because of the time between the incident(s) and
the accusation
52
Justifications, 3:
Inadequate Seminary Preparation
• Accused priests indicated that had each man been
adequately trained to undertake priestly life, they
may have been able to make better choices, for
example:
 They may not have chosen to be ordained, but in
some way felt pressured
 They might have been better equipped to adjust
to the loneliness and realities of the life of celibate
chastity, though no priest said that the vow of
celibate chastity was the actual problem
53
Deviance Disavowal:
Appealing to a Higher Authority
• Accused priests believed that a sin or infraction
must first be mended with a higher authority, that
is, the authority of God
 Their particular focus was on relationship with God;
through the sacrament of reconciliation the slate would
have been wiped clean of sin
 They may have sought forgiveness also from parishioners
and victims, or completed some distinct punishment or
treatment and therefore that should be enough to end the
process of condemnation
However, they failed to recognize any harm to the victim
54
Desistance from Abuse, 1:
Why Abuse Stopped
Desistance from abuse is affected by both
internal and external influences
• Some priest-abusers stopped because of
internal reasons
 Feeling guilty about their behavior
 Having a sense of remorse
 Feeling shame because of their behavior
55
Desistance from Abuse, 2:
Why Abuse Stopped
• More commonly, abuse stopped because of
external reasons
 being removed from the parishes and situations
in which they could abuse
• Others stopped because of a combination of
internal and external reasons
 they earned a disgraceful reputation because of
their behavior
 they were “reformed” after treatment
56
Module G: Prevention, Deterrence, and
Treatment of Those Accused of Sexual Abuse
(For Parishes and Dioceses as well as Seminary
Formation Faculty and Administrators)
A. Prevention: Education and Policies
B. Deterrence – Oversight and Accountability
C. Models of and Changes in Treatment for Sex
Offenders
D. Recommendations for Policy Changes
57
A. Education - Initial Formation of
Seminarians, Ongoing Formation of Priests
Having had at least some human formation education
was a critical factor in distinguishing between priests
with allegations of abuse and those without allegations
•
•
The presence of Human Formation in seminary programs has
evolved over the past 40 years; its development was consistent
with the decline in sexual abuse incidents
Ongoing formation is needed to enhance the integration of
priestly identity and the tasks of pastoral ministry; for reasons
of excessive workloads, lack of money, or other personal
factors, not all priests engage in ongoing formation
58
Policies: Five Ways to Prevent Abuse
1. Increase the effort it takes for priests to commit acts of
abuse
2. Increase the risks by making it more likely that those
who commit acts of abuse will be identified, and once
identified, will have more to lose
3. Reduce the rewards by providing alternate outlets for
close bonds with others
4. Reduce provocations by diminishing the factors that
may lead priests to abuse, such as stress
5. Remove excuses through education about what
types of behavior are and are not appropriate with
minors
59
B. Deterrence - Oversight and
Accountability, Time and Leadership
Changes in response to sexual abuse take time
• Such changes can be achieved only through transparency in
reporting and dealing with sexual abuse, involving review
boards, parishes, and dioceses
• Change must come from the leaders of organizations
• Transparency/accountability structures must become routine,
so that they are institutionalized as part of the ordinary
practices and culture of the diocese
• International priests, unfamiliar with the American context,
must be given special opportunities to participate in cultural
learning programs regarding sexual behavior
60
Deterrence - Oversight and Accountability:
Steps in Developing Responses
Transparency requires that the whole church
community be engaged at all levels, including
laity and clergy, in order to maintain vigilance in
the prevention of the abuse of children
Decreased rates of clergy sexual abuse do not
mean that less vigilance is acceptable since new
forms of abuse, such as internet relationships
and pornography, are steadily increasing
To prevent sexual abuse, don’t let the guard down
61
Initial Diocesan Response to
Sexual Abuse Allegations, 1950-1989
Initial Diocesan Action
1950 – 1979
1980 – 1989
Reprimanded & returned to
ministry
Referred for evaluation
Suspended
34.8
12.4
33.0
6.4
50.7
7.6
Administrative leave
Resigned or retired
Reinstated
6.0
5.2
3.0
8.9
4.8
1.7
Treatment
Other
No Action Taken
2.2
5.7
3.7
4.6
6.9
2.4
62
Reassignment and the Understanding
of Relapse
• When church leaders discovered that priests who
had received psychological treatment had
subsequently committed new offenses, they
began to challenge the premise that psychological
treatment could address and change the behavior
of priests who had sexually abused minors
• There is a clear difference in the abusive behavior
of the priests who were sent to specialized sex
offender treatment when compared to all priests
accused of abuse by the end of 1990
63
D. Recommendations for Policy Changes, 1
The 1992 Policy on Priests and Sexual Abuse of
Children stated:
[W]hen there is even a hint of such an incident




investigate immediately
remove the priest whenever the evidence warrants it
follow the reporting obligations of the civil law
extend pastoral care to the victim and the victim’s
family
 and seek appropriate treatment for the offender
64
Recommendations for Policy Changes, 2
•
•
A commission of the Archdiocese of Chicago
recommended that a priest involved in sexual
misconduct with minors not be returned to parish
ministry or other ministry with access to minors,
although it left open the possibility of other
nonparochial work following administrative leave and
aftercare
Other recommendations included a review board to
assist the bishop in the evaluation of cases of abuse, a
lay case manager to initiate an immediate process
following an accusation, and a 24-hour hotline for
victims to report incidents of abuse
65
Discussion Questions
(Re Module K)
• What reflections do you have about clerical sexual
abuse in recent years?
• How can the response by those who must be
accountable for preventing sexual abuse in parishes
be improved?
• How can the “The Five Principles” be used in parish
settings to help parishioners better understand the
guidelines described by the USCCB?
• What more needs to be done to ensure continued
progress in understanding and acting on the problem
of clerical sexual abuse in parish settings?
66
Discussion Questions, 1
(Re Module L)
• Taking into account the circumstances and timing that were
most common when abuse was perpetrated, what
instructions should be given to parishioners, especially
parents, and to children about sexual abuse?
• What safeguards should be implemented in parish settings
to reduce the probability of abuse?
• Considering the settings and locations where abuse took
place, what precautions should priests and other church
leaders take relative to where they meet young people?
• What are the major differences between types of sexual
offenders?
67
Discussion Questions, 2
(Re Module L)
• What risk factors particular to clergy might be observed
in potential clergy sex offenders?
• What are the essential ingredients of educational
programs that can help prevent sexual abuse?
• What components of the prevention models are most
useful in your situation?
• How can oversight be enhanced to prevent further sexual
abuse?
• To what extent are recommendations on education of
young people, parishioners, and church leaders being
implemented?
68
Discussion Questions
(Re Module M)
• What reflections do you have about clerical sexual
abuse in recent years?
• What are some of the major concerns you have about
the implications of sexual abuse at the diocesan level?
• What precautions should be taken into account by
dioceses when assessing possible “causes” or risk
factors involved in sexual abuse?
• How can the response by those who must be
accountable for preventing sexual abuse be improved?
• What situational safeguards and preventive measures
might be put in place to help prevent sexual abuse?
69
Discussion Questions, 1
(Re Module N)
• Taking into account the circumstances and timing that were
most common when abuse was perpetrated, what
instructions should be given to those who are or soon will be
serving in ministry?
• Considering the settings and locations where abuse took
place, what precautions should priests and other church
leaders take about where they meet young people?
• What other safeguards should dioceses put in place to deter
abuse in and around parishes?
• How can those responsible for the care of children and young
people be made more aware of the characteristics of
grooming behavior and how to respond when it occurs?
70
Discussion Questions, 2 (Re Module N)
• What are the essential ingredients of educational
programs that dioceses should have in place to help
prevent sexual abuse?
• What are some of the relevant factors to be aware of
at the onset of abuse?
• How do the excuses and justifications for sexual abuse
affect the persistence of the behavior?
• What are some ways supervisors can more readily
detect abuse?
Link to USCCB – http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/childand-youth-protection/charter.cfm
71
Discussion Questions (Re Module O)
• What components of the prevention models are
most useful in your diocesan and parish situations?
• What other means of deterrence are possible to
prevent further abuse in your diocese?
• To what extent are recommendations on education
of young people, parishioners, and church leaders
being implemented?
• Does the progression in treatment of sexual abuse
ensure the safety of children and young people as
much as it can?
• How can oversight be enhanced in your diocese to
help prevent further clergy sexual abuse?
72
Module J: “Promise to Protect – Pledge to
Heal,” Charter for the Protection of Children
and Young People, Essential Norms, and
Statement of Episcopal Commitment
(For All – Seminaries, Parishes and Dioceses)
A. Preamble
B. To Promote Healing and Reconciliation with
Victims/Survivors of Sexual Abuse of Minors
C. To Guarantee and Effective Response to
Allegations of Sexual Abuse of Minors
D. To ensure the Accountability of Our Procedures
E. To Protect the Faithful in the Future
F. Conclusion
73
Module K: Background and Responses to
Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests
in the United States
(Primarily for Parishes)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Timeframes of Abuse
Development of the Five Principles
Church and Seminary Responses
Some Key Findings
74
Module L: Situational and Organizational
Factors Related to Sexual Abuse of Minors
by Catholic Priests
(For Parishes)
A. Situational Factors: Settings and Circumstances
of Sexual Abuse
B. Organizational Factors Relating to Abuse
C. Typologies of Offenders
D. Grooming Behavior
E. Five Ways to Prevent Abuse by Implementing
Situational Crime Prevention Models
75
Module M: Background and Responses to
Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests
in the United States
(Primarily for Dioceses)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Timeframes of Abuse
Sexual Abuse and Civil Authorities
Development of the Five Principles
Church and Seminary Responses
76
Module N: Understanding Sexual Abuse of
Minors by Catholic Priests: Situational
Factors; Organizational Factors; Typologies
of Abuse; Excuses, Justifications and
Desistance from Abuse
(Primarily for Dioceses)
A. Situational Factors: Settings and Circumstances
of Sexual Abuse
B. Organizational Factors Relating to Abuse
C. Typologies of Abuse
D. Excuses for Behavior, Justifications for Behavior,
and Desistance from Abuse
77
Module O: Prevention and Deterrence
of Sexual Abuse and Treatment of Those
Accused of Abuse
(Primarily for Dioceses)
A. Prevention Policies
B. Deterrence – Oversight and Accountability
C. Models of and Changes in Treatment for Sex
Offenders
78

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