Nigeria: Political/Economic Change By: Alexandra Fung and Morgan GaglianeseWoody Introduction • Nigeria is economically dependent on British demands during and after British colonial rule • Claimed independence in 1960 • Independence from British demands became a challenge • 3 eras define the challenges and changes which establish Nigeria’s independence and dependence 3 Major Eras • Pre-Colonial (800-1860 C.E.) • Colonial (1860-1960) • Modern (1960-present) Pre-colonial Era Trade Geography dictated social, economic, and political development -Northern Savanna areas – easy trade through Saharan Berber traders -Forested areas –no availability through Saharan Berber traders -South –close to Atlantic Ocean trade -Slave trade from 16th-19th century http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irn2SWBRZ WQ Pre-colonial Era Cultural Change Islam – important gradual change through cultural diffusion Fulani –An Islamic group that came to the north and brought an abrupt change through a holy war Pre-colonial Era Islam • Islam is mainly dominant in Northern Nigeria • Islam is less dominant in Western Nigeria • Shari’ah law is NOT unanimously supported Pre-colonial Era Fulani in the North • 1808 –Fulani established Sokoto Caliphate Sokoto Caliphate –a Muslim state in the north, northwest, midsection, and part of the northeast • 1900 –Caliphate traded with Europe and soon fell under British colonial rule • An organized central and religiously based government was established Pre-colonial Era European contact in the South • Already in contact with Europe • Many converted to Christianity • Atlantic Ocean trade – slave trade (16th-19th century) • 17th century –Dutch British, French, and Spanish traders brought Africans to the New World • Many forced to leave native land Colonial Era British rule • Indirect rule –trained natives to maintain Europeanstyle bureaucracy • 1860 –established a trading outlet and used Nigeria’s natural resources and cheap human labor • Influence strongest in south –near the coast • North Islamic government left in place Colonial Era Education • Western-style education system established • Set up by Christian missionaries • 1934 –first higher education institution opened • 1948 –first university established Colonial Era Consequences of Western-style education • Relatively literate population • Growing cleavage: educated and non-educated • Growing cleavage: north and south • More schools in the south • North not given the same opportunity for Westernstyle education Modern Nigeria (1960-Present) • • Divided into four Republics. Characterized by: o Military Dictatorshipsgovernment changes hands quickly with a series of military coup d' etats. o Ethnic conflicts- groups compete for power (Yoruba v. Igbo v. Hausa-Fulani). o Corruption in the government o Instability o The "national question" Modern Era The First Republic • Assumed power in 1960 and followed the British Parliamentary System: o House of Representatives o Senate o Supreme Court o Written constitution Balewa • 1st Prime Minister: Abubakar Tafawa Balewa • 1st President: Nnamdi Azikiwe *Nigeria was still a part of the British Commonwealth system. Modern Era The First Republic (Continued) • Dec. 1964/Jan. 1965: Balewa (Hausa-Fulani) wins parliamentary majority. o o corrupt, violent election. ethnic identity emerges as primary organizing principle for political party development. • 1966: Balewa is assassinated. o Major General Johnson Aguyi Ironsi (Igbo) suspended constitution, banned political parties, dismantled federal system, and formed the Federal Military Government (FMG). Modern Era The First Republic (Continued) Gowon • 1966: Ironsi killed in military coup. o Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon named head of FMG and reintroduced federal system and promised for a future Constitutional Conference. • 1967: Biafran Civil war. o Igbos unhappy with Gowon's leadership: corruption, high inflation, and poor economic planning. • 1975: Gowon replaced by Murtala Muhammed (HausaFulani). Modern Era The Second Republic • Obasanjo 1977: Muhammed assassinated in military coup and replaced by Olusegun Obasanjo (Yoruba), who lays the groundwork for the 2nd Republic. o 19-state Federal Republic o American-style constitution (separation of powers and checks and balances) • 1979: Shehu Shagari (Hausa-Fulani) democratically elected president, but was forced out of office by military coup led by Gen. Muhammad Buhari in 1983, ending the 2nd Republic. Shagari Modern Era The Second Republic (continued) • Defining characteristics: o Global economic recession: drop in oil prices. o Decrease in legitimacy: Government implements unpopular austerity measures. o Limited interest in promoting democracy and political participation. Buhari Modern Era The Third Republic • • 1983- Buhari replaces government with Supreme Military Council, dissolves legislature, and bans political activity. 1985- Buhari overthrown by a coup led by Maj. Gen. Ibrahim Babangida. Increases number of states from 19 to 30 and plans for an election between two political parties to be held in 1993. Babangida Modern Era The Third Republic (continued) • 1993- Chief Mashood Kastumawo Olawale Abiola (Yoruba) presumed to be the winner, but Babangida annulled the election due to "electoral fraud". • Babangida is forced to resign. This aborted transition process is known as the Third Republic. Olawale Modern Era The Fourth Republic • 1993- A caretaker government is established with Ernest Shonekan (Yoruba) as the leader, but is overthrown by Gen. Sani Abacha in a military coup. • 1998- Abacha suddenly dies and is replaced by Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar. • 1999- Abubakar presides over democratic elections that result in Obasanjo as the winner, establishing the 4th Republic. • 2003- Obasanjo reelected to presidency. Modern Era The Fourth Republic (continued) • Characterized by: o religious and ethnic violence o corruption and voting fraud o lack of democracy Abacha Modern Era Corruption and the "national question" • Made worse by Babangida and Abacha: o maintained large foreign bank accounts with regular deposits from the state. o funds went to the elite through patron-clientelism. o 2/3 of oil sales during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 ended up in the hands of elites. • The "national question": o Nigeria did not develop nationalism, so there was a possibility that Nigeria would not survive as a country. Vocabulary • cultural diffusion- contact with and spread of customs and beliefs of other people. • Fulani- a tribe which came North to Nigeria through a holy war which implemented abrupt change • "national question"- possibility that Nigeria would not survive as a country. • Sokoto Caliphate- a Muslim state in the north, northwest, midsection, and part of the northeast. Current Event http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21425923 Additional Source Kaiser, Paul J.. "AP Comparative Government and Politics Briefing Papers." College Board. College Board, n.d. Web. 18 Feb 2013. <http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_corner/42 256.html>.