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Nigeria:
Political/Economic Change
By: Alexandra Fung and Morgan GaglianeseWoody
Introduction
• Nigeria is economically
dependent on British demands
during and after British colonial
rule
• Claimed independence in 1960
• Independence from British
demands became a
challenge
• 3 eras define the challenges
and changes which
establish Nigeria’s
independence and
dependence
3 Major Eras
• Pre-Colonial (800-1860 C.E.)
• Colonial (1860-1960)
• Modern (1960-present)
Pre-colonial Era
Trade
Geography dictated social,
economic, and political
development
-Northern Savanna areas –
easy trade through Saharan
Berber traders
-Forested areas –no availability
through Saharan Berber traders
-South –close to Atlantic
Ocean trade
-Slave trade from 16th-19th
century
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irn2SWBRZ
WQ
Pre-colonial Era
Cultural Change
Islam – important gradual change through cultural
diffusion
Fulani –An Islamic group that came
to the north and brought an
abrupt change through a holy
war
Pre-colonial Era
Islam
•
Islam is mainly dominant in Northern Nigeria
•
Islam is less dominant in Western Nigeria
•
Shari’ah law is NOT unanimously supported
Pre-colonial Era
Fulani in the North
•
1808 –Fulani established Sokoto Caliphate
Sokoto Caliphate –a Muslim state in the north, northwest,
midsection, and part of the northeast
• 1900 –Caliphate traded with Europe and soon fell under
British colonial rule
•
An organized central and religiously based
government was established
Pre-colonial
Era
European contact in the
South
•
Already in contact with
Europe
•
Many converted to
Christianity
•
Atlantic Ocean trade –
slave trade (16th-19th
century)
•
17th century –Dutch
British, French, and
Spanish traders
brought Africans to
the New World
•
Many forced to leave
native land
Colonial Era
British rule
•
Indirect rule –trained natives to maintain Europeanstyle bureaucracy
•
1860 –established a trading outlet and used
Nigeria’s natural resources and cheap human labor
•
Influence strongest in south –near the coast
•
North Islamic government left in place
Colonial Era
Education
•
Western-style education system established
•
Set up by Christian missionaries
•
1934 –first higher education institution opened
•
1948 –first university established
Colonial Era
Consequences of Western-style education
•
Relatively literate population
•
Growing cleavage: educated and non-educated
•
Growing cleavage: north and south
•
More schools in the south
•
North not given the same opportunity for Westernstyle education
Modern Nigeria (1960-Present)
•
•
Divided into four Republics.
Characterized by:
o Military Dictatorshipsgovernment changes
hands quickly with a series
of military coup d' etats.
o Ethnic conflicts- groups
compete for power (Yoruba
v. Igbo v. Hausa-Fulani).
o Corruption in the
government
o Instability
o The "national question"
Modern Era
The First Republic
• Assumed power in 1960 and followed the British
Parliamentary System:
o
House of Representatives
o
Senate
o
Supreme Court
o
Written constitution
Balewa
• 1st Prime Minister: Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
• 1st President: Nnamdi Azikiwe
*Nigeria was still a part of the British Commonwealth system.
Modern Era
The First Republic (Continued)
• Dec. 1964/Jan. 1965: Balewa (Hausa-Fulani) wins
parliamentary majority.
o
o
corrupt, violent election.
ethnic identity emerges as primary organizing
principle for political party development.
• 1966: Balewa is assassinated.
o
Major General Johnson Aguyi Ironsi (Igbo)
suspended constitution, banned political parties,
dismantled federal system, and formed the Federal
Military Government (FMG).
Modern Era
The First Republic (Continued)
Gowon
• 1966: Ironsi killed in military coup.
o
Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon named head of FMG and
reintroduced federal system and promised for a
future Constitutional Conference.
• 1967: Biafran Civil war.
o
Igbos unhappy with Gowon's leadership: corruption,
high inflation, and poor economic planning.
• 1975: Gowon replaced by Murtala Muhammed (HausaFulani).
Modern Era
The Second Republic
•
Obasanjo
1977: Muhammed assassinated in military
coup and replaced by Olusegun Obasanjo
(Yoruba), who lays the groundwork for the
2nd Republic.
o 19-state Federal Republic
o American-style constitution (separation
of powers and checks and balances)
•
1979: Shehu Shagari (Hausa-Fulani)
democratically elected president, but was
forced out of office by military coup led by
Gen. Muhammad Buhari in 1983, ending the
2nd Republic.
Shagari
Modern Era
The Second Republic
(continued)
•
Defining characteristics:
o Global economic
recession: drop in oil
prices.
o Decrease in legitimacy:
Government implements
unpopular austerity
measures.
o Limited interest in
promoting democracy and
political participation.
Buhari
Modern Era
The Third Republic
•
•
1983- Buhari replaces government
with Supreme Military Council,
dissolves legislature, and bans
political activity.
1985- Buhari overthrown by a coup
led by Maj. Gen. Ibrahim
Babangida. Increases number of
states from 19 to 30 and plans for
an election between two political
parties to be held in 1993.
Babangida
Modern Era
The Third Republic (continued)
• 1993- Chief Mashood
Kastumawo Olawale Abiola
(Yoruba) presumed to be the
winner, but Babangida annulled
the election due to "electoral
fraud".
• Babangida is forced to resign.
This aborted transition process
is known as the Third Republic.
Olawale
Modern Era
The Fourth Republic
• 1993- A caretaker government is established with
Ernest Shonekan (Yoruba) as the leader, but is
overthrown by Gen. Sani Abacha in a military coup.
• 1998- Abacha suddenly dies and is replaced by
Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar.
• 1999- Abubakar presides over democratic
elections that result in Obasanjo as the winner,
establishing the 4th Republic.
• 2003- Obasanjo reelected to presidency.
Modern Era
The Fourth Republic (continued)
• Characterized by:
o
religious and ethnic violence
o
corruption and voting fraud
o
lack of democracy
Abacha
Modern Era
Corruption and the "national question"
• Made worse by Babangida and Abacha:
o
maintained large foreign bank accounts with regular
deposits from the state.
o
funds went to the elite through patron-clientelism.
o
2/3 of oil sales during the Persian Gulf War in 1991
ended up in the hands of elites.
• The "national question":
o
Nigeria did not develop nationalism, so there was a
possibility that Nigeria would not survive as a
country.
Vocabulary
•
cultural diffusion- contact with and spread of
customs and beliefs of other people.
•
Fulani- a tribe which came North to Nigeria through
a holy war which implemented abrupt change
•
"national question"- possibility that Nigeria would
not survive as a country.
•
Sokoto Caliphate- a Muslim state in the north,
northwest, midsection, and part of the northeast.
Current Event
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-21425923
Additional Source
Kaiser, Paul J.. "AP Comparative Government and Politics Briefing Papers."
College Board. College Board, n.d. Web. 18 Feb 2013.
<http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_corner/42
256.html>.

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