Cells

Report
Cells
Structure and Function
Cell Vocabulary
Make a flashcard for these terms:
1. Cell
2. Cell theory
3. Cell membrane
4. Cell wall
5. Nucleus
6. Cytoplasm
7. Prokaryote
8. Eukaryote
9. Organelle
10. Ribosome
11. Endoplasmic reticulum
12. Gogi apparatus
13. Lysosome
14. Vacuole
15. Chloroplast
16. Mitochondria
17. Lipid bilayer
18. Selective permeability
19. Diffusion
20. Active transport
Cell Theory
•All living things are composed of cells.
•Cells are the basic units of structure and
function in living things.
•New cells are produced from existing cells.
Cell Shape and Size
• Press your pen to your paper to create dot.
• How many cells do you think would fit within
that dot????
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic
•These 2 types of cells
differ in complexity and
general structure
Prokaryotic Cells
•Lack internal membrane-bound
structures
•Unicellular organisms
•About 1/10th the size of a Eukaryotic
cell.
•Example: bacteria
Prokaryotic Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
•Multicellular organisms
•Membrane bound organelles
•Mostly animal cells
•Present in all living things, except
bacteria
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic POGIL
Plant and Animal Cells
• Look at p. 176 in your textbook.
• Take a moment to look at the cells.
• What structures do plant cells have that animal cells do
not??
Plant and Animal Cell Mystery
Basic Parts of a Cell
•Despite cell diversity, ALL cells have
3 basic parts:
1)Cell Membrane and/or Cell Wall
2)Cytoplasm
3)Nucleus
Cell Wall
•Cell Wall provides support and
protection for the cell.
•Found in plants and many
prokaryotes
•Very outside edge of the cell
Cytoplasm
•The region of the cell that is
within the plasma membrane
•Includes the fluid, cytoskeleton,
and all organelles (except
nucleus).
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
• Cells carry coded information in the form of DNA.
• In some cells DNA floats freely inside the cell
• In other cells the DNA is found in a membranebound organelle: the NUCLEUS
• Most functions of a cell are controlled by the
nucleus.
• The NUCLEOLUS is a small structure within the
nucleus where ribosomes are assembled.
Control Center
Basic Parts Video Clip
Nucleus Video Clip
INTERACTIVE
•Draw a cell and label all 3 basic parts
•You do NOT need to include all the
organelles
Cell Organelles
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Plasma
Membrane
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Cytoskeleton
The Cell Song!
• Available on Youtube and Itunes
Cell Organelle POGIL
Ribosomes
(not an organelle - but important)
• Present in the cytoplasm.
• Present with Rough ER.
• No membrane present.
• Each cell contains thousands
• Make proteins
Ribosome Video Clip
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• System of tubes and sacs
• Moves materials around in
cell
• Smooth type: lacks
ribosomes
• Rough type (pictured):
ribosomes embedded in
surface
http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Transports materials
throughout the cell.
• Digests lipids.
• Produces proteins.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Covered with ribosomes.
• Produces proteins.
• Transports materials
throughout the cell.
Video Clip Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus
•Protein 'packaging
plant'
•Move materials within
the cell
•Move materials out of
the cell
http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Golgi Apparatus Video Clip
Central Vacuole
(Plant Cell Only)
• Most plant cells have
one large one.
• Filled w/ fluid.
• Helps maintains
turgor pressure and
shape of cell.
Chloroplast
(Plant Cell Only)
• Contains chlorophyll.
• Makes plants green.
• Uses light energy to make
ATP & sugars.
• Photosynthesis takes place
here.
Mitochondria Video Clips
Mitochondria, aka “Mighty-Chondria”
• This organelle processes energy for a cell.
It makes ATP by breaking down glucose to
Carbon dioxide.
• (ATP = energy)
• Involved in cellular respiration
• Controls level of water and other
materials in cell
• Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats,
and carbohydrates
• Mitochondria even have their own DNA!
Let’s hear that Cell Song Again…
A quick review of cell organelles
• 3 Facts from the Brainpop on Cell
Structures
INTERACTIVE Cell City
Cell Memory Chart
Cell Coloring!
• Quiz on Eukaryotic cell at next
meeting!!
• Plant and Animal Cell Coloring
sheet
Movement through the Membrane
• Cell’s outer boundary
• Covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between
the inside and outside of the cell
• All materials enter and exit through the plasma
membrane
• Membrane is SEMIPERMEABLE: allows only certain
materials in and out.
Plasma Membrane
Movement through a membrane video Clip
Cell Homeostasis
• Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by
controlling what substances may enter or leave cells.
• There are two main ways of transporting materials into and out
of a cell:
Passive Transport
and
Active Transport
Passive Transport
•Passive transport occurs when substances
cross the cell membrane without any energy
by the cell
•Transport with NO Energy—riding a bike
downhill
•Diffusion and Osmosis are the primary
methods of Passive Transport
Diffusion
•Simplest form of passive transport
•Movement of molecules from an area of higher
concentration to lower concentration
•The difference in the concentration of
molecules across a distance is called a
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
•Molecules will move from one area to another
until it reaches EQUILIBRIUM, or a balance.
Sugar Cube Diffusion
Osmosis
• Osmosis is the passive (no energy required) transport
of water across a cell membrane
• Water moves from areas of high concentration to low
concentration
• When the concentration of solute molecules outside
the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution
outside the cell is HYPOTONIC to the cell. In this
situation water diffuses INTO the cell until equilibrium
is established.
Osmosis
•If the solution outside the cell is higher
than the inside the cell the solution is
HYPERTONIC and the water diffuses out
of the cell to reach equilibrium
•When the concentrations are
equal=ISOTONIC
Osmosis Video Clip
Gummy Bear Osmosis Lab
Active Transport
•When cells need to transport materials
from an area of low concentration to
high concentration (the opposite of
what would naturally happen) it is called
ACTIVE TRANSPORT, the cell needs to
use ENERGY.
Endocytosis
•The process by which cells ingest external
fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
Exocytosis
• Process by which a substance is released from a cell
Endo and Exo video clip

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