Movement of Labor and Capital between Countries

Report
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Movement of Labor and Capital between
Countries
5
1
Movement of Labor
between Countries:
Migration
2
Movement of Capital
between Countries:
Foreign Direct
Investment
3
Gains from Labor and
Capital Flows
Prepared by:
Fernando Quijano
Dickinson State University
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Introduction
In this chapter, we begin our study of the
movement of labor across countries by
explaining the case in which immigration
leads to a fall in wages, as we normally
expect.
Agricultural workers in the
United States
The model we use in that case is the specific-factors
model, the short-run model introduced in Chapter 3.
Next, we use the long-run Heckscher-Ohlin model, from
Chapter 4, in which capital and land can also move
between industries.
In the long run, an increase in labor will not lower the
wage, as industries have more time to respond to the
inflow of workers.
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Introduction
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
After studying what happens in the short
run and long run when labor moves
across countries, we study the effects of
foreign direct investment (FDI), the
movement of capital across countries.
Agricultural workers in the
United States
We conclude the chapter by discussing the gains to the
host and destination countries, and to the world, from the
movement of labor or capital between countries.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Short Run: Specific-Factors Model
Determining the Wage
Home Labor Market
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-1
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The Home wage is determined
at point A, the intersection of
the marginal product of labor
curves PM • MPLM and PA •
MPLA in manufacturing and
agriculture, respectively.
The amount of labor used in
manufacturing is measured
from left to right, starting at the
origin 0M, and the amount of
labor used in agriculture is
measured from right to left,
starting at the origin 0A. At
point A, 0ML units of labor are
used in manufacturing and 0AL
units of labor are used in
agriculture.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Short Run:
Specific-Factors Model
Effect of Immigration on the Wage in Home
Increase in Home Labor
FIGURE 5-2
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
When the amount of labor at
Home increases by the amount
L, the origin for agriculture
shifts to the right by that amount,
from 0A to 0A.
The marginal product of labor
curve in agriculture also shifts
right by the amount L.
Equilibrium in the Home labor
market is now at point B: wages
have fallen to W and the
amount of labor has increased in
manufacturing (to 0ML) and in
agriculture (to 0AL).
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APPLICATION
Immigration to the New World
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-3
Wages in Europe and the New World
Migration also slowed the growth of wages in
the New World relative to what they would
have been without migration and allowed for
slightly faster growth of wages in Europe.
Copyright © 2011 Worth Publishers· International Economics· Feenstra/Taylor, 2/e.
Large-scale migration
from Europe to the New
World in America and
Australia closed the
wage gap between the
two locations. In 1870
wages in the New
World were almost
three times as high as
wages in Europe,
whereas in 1910 they
were about twice as
high.
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HEADLINES
Europe Sours on Labor Migration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Globalization has turned 200 million people into migrant
workers in the last few decades.
One-fifth of them are Europeans, less than one-tenth are
Africans and 3 percent are from Latin America.
Now the trend is reversing itself, a shift that generally affects
those who came from Europe’s poorest regions and from
emerging and developing nations.
Officials at the United Nations International Labour
Organization (ILO) fear that 30 million people around the
globe could lose their livelihoods.
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APPLICATION
Immigration to the United States and Europe Today
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-4 (1 of 3)
Share of Foreign-Born Workers in U.S. Workforce, 2008
This figure shows the share of foreign-born workers in the U.S. workforce,
categorized by educational level.
For example, among workers with only 0 to 8 years of education, more
than 70% were foreign born; for those with 9 to 11 years of education,
more than 20% were foreign born.
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APPLICATION
Immigration to the United States and Europe Today
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-4 (2 of 3)
Share of Foreign-Born Workers in U.S. Workforce, 2008
(continued)
At the other end of the spectrum, the foreign born make up 16% of
workers with master’s and professional degrees and almost 30% of those
with PhD’s.
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APPLICATION
Immigration to the United States and Europe Today
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-4 (2 of 3)
Share of Foreign-Born Workers in U.S. Workforce, 2008
(continued)
In the middle educational levels (high school and college graduates), there
are much smaller shares of foreign-born workers, ranging from 10% to
15%. In contrast, only about 10% of U.S.-born workers are categorized in
each of the low-education and high-education groups; most U.S.-born
workers are either high school graduates or college graduates.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rentals on Capital and Land
• U.S. and Europe have both welcomed foreign workers
in specific industries: agriculture and high-tech.
• They do this even though those foreign workers
compete with domestic workers in those industries.
• Therefore there must be benefits to the industries.
• We can measure these potential benefits by the
payments to capital and land, called rentals.
• We use the same two measurements for rentals as in
chapter 3.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rentals on Capital and Land
• Under the first method for computing the rentals, we
take the revenue earned in either manufacturing or
agriculture and subtract the payments to labor.
• If wages fall, then there is more left over as earnings of
capital and land, so these rentals are higher.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rentals on Capital and Land
• Under the second method for computing rentals,
capital and land earn their marginal product in each
industry times the price of the industry’s good.
• As more labor is hired in each industry (because
wages are lower), the marginal products of capital and
land both increase. The increase in the marginal
product occurs because each machine or acre of land
has more workers available to it, and that machine or
acre of land is therefore more productive.
• So under the second method, too, the marginal
products of capital and land rise and so do their
rentals.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rentals on Capital and Land
• From this line of reasoning, we should not be surprised
that owners of capital and land often support more open
borders, which provides them with foreign workers that
can be employed in their industries.
• The restriction on immigration in a country should
therefore be seen as a compromise between
entrepreneurs and landowners who might welcome the
foreign labor.
• Local unions and workers who view migrants as a
potential source of competition leading to lower wages.
• Immigrant groups themselves, if they are large enough,
might also have the ability to influence the political
outcome on immigration policy.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Other Effects of Immigration in the Short Run
Effect of Immigration on Industry Output
FIGURE 5-5
Shift in Home Production Possibilities Curve
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
With the increase in labor at
Home from immigration, the
production possibilities frontier
shifts outward and the output
of both industries increases,
from point A to point B.
Output in both industries
increases because of the
short-run nature of the
specific-factors model; in the
short run, land and capital do
not move between the
industries, and the extra labor
in the economy is shared
between both industries.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Effect of Immigration on Industry Output
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-6
Production Possibilities Frontier
Shown here is the
production possibilities
frontier (PPF) between two
manufactured goods,
computers and shoes, with
initial equilibrium at point A.
Domestic production takes
place at point A, which is the
point of tangency between
the world price line and the
PPF.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Effect of Immigration on Industry Output
FIGURE 5-7
Allocation of Labor and Capital in a Box Diagram
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
The top and bottom axes of
the box diagram measure
the amount of labor, L, in the
economy, and the side axes
measure the amount of
capital, K.
At point A, 0SL units of labor
and 0SK units of capital are
used in shoe production, and
0CL units of labor and 0CK
units of capital are used in
computers.
The K/L ratios in the two
industries are measured by
the slopes of 0SA and 0CA,
respectively.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Determination of the Real Wage and Real Rental
• To determine the wage and rental in the economy, we
use the marginal products of labor and capital, which
are in turn determined by the capital-labor ratio in
either industry.
• If there is a higher capital-labor ratio (that is, if there
are more machines per worker), then by the law of
diminishing returns, the marginal product of capital and
the real rental must be lower.
• Having more machines per worker means that the
marginal product of labor (and hence the real wage) is
higher because each worker is more productive.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Determination of the Real Wage and Real Rental
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-7 (revisited)
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Each amount of labor and
capital used in Figure 5-7
along line 0SA corresponds
to a particular capital-labor
ratio for shoe manufacture
and therefore a particular
real wage and real rental.
While the total amount of
labor and capital used in
each industry changes, the
capital-labor ratios are
unaffected by immigration,
which means that the
immigrants can be
absorbed with no change at
all in the real wage and real
rental.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Increase in the Amount of Home Labor
FIGURE 5-8 (1 of 2)
Increase in Home Labor
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
With an increase in
Home labor from L to
L + L, the origin for
the shoe industry
shifts from 0S to 0S.
At point B, 0SL units
of labor and 0SK units
of capital are used in
shoes, while 0CL units
of labor and 0CK units
of capital are used in
computers.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Increase in the Amount of Home Labor
FIGURE 5-8 (2 of 2)
Increase in Home Labor (continued)
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
In the long run, industry
outputs adjust so that the
capital-labor ratios in each
industry at point B (the
slopes of 0SB and 0CB) are
unchanged from the initial
equilibrium at point A (the
slopes of 0SA and 0CA). To
achieve this outcome, all new
labor resulting from
immigration is allocated to
the shoe industry, and capital
and additional labor are
transferred from computers
to shoes, keeping the capitallabor ratio in both industries
unchanged.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effects of Immigration in the Long Run
Effect of Immigration on Industry Outputs
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-9
The Long-Run Effect on Industry Outputs of an Increase in Home Labor
With an increase in the amount of
labor at Home, the PPF shifts
outward.
The output of shoes increases
while the output of computers
declines as the equilibrium moves
from point A to B.
The prices of goods have not
changed, so the slopes of the
PPFs at points A and B (i.e., the
relative price of computers) are
equal.
The finding that an increase in labor will expand one industry but contract
the other holds only in the long run; in the short run, as we saw in Figure
5-5, both industries will expand.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rybczynski Theorem
The Rybczynski theorem states that, in the HeckscherOhlin model with two goods and two factors, an increase
in the amount of a factor found in an economy will
increase the output of the industry using that factor
intensively and decrease the output of the other industry.
We have proved the Rybczynski theorem for the case of
immigration, where labor in the economy grows.
As we argue later in the chapter, the same theorem holds
when capital in the economy grows: in this case, the
industry using capital intensively expands and the other
industry contracts.
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1 Movement of Labor between Countries: Migration
Effect of Immigration on Factor Prices The Rybczynski theorem
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Factor prices do not need to change as a result of
immigration.
The reason that factor prices do not need to change is that
the economy can absorb the extra amount of a factor by
increasing the output of the industry using that factor
intensively and reducing the output of the other industry.
The finding that factor prices do not change is sometimes
called the factor price insensitivity result.
To understand the application that follows next, you should
know that real value-added measures the payments to
labor and capital in an industry corrected for inflation.
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APPLICATION
The Effects of the Mariel Boat Lift on Industry Output in Miami
FIGURE 5-10 (1 of 2)
Industry Value-Added in Miami
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
In panel (a), with the
inflow of refugees
from Cuba in 1980,
real value-added in
the apparel industry
in Miami rose from
1983 to 1984, and
the trend decline of
this industry in
Miami was slower
(i.e., value-added
did not fall as fast)
after 1980 than in
the comparison
cities.
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APPLICATION
The Effects of the Mariel Boat Lift on Industry Output in Miami
FIGURE 5-10 (2 of 2)
Industry Value-Added in Miami (continued)
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
In panel (b), real
value-added in
Miami in highskilled industries
fell faster after
1980 than in the
comparison cities.
Both of these
findings are
consistent with the
Rybczynksi
theorem.
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APPLICATION
Immigration and U.S. Wages, 1990–2004
TABLE 5-1
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Miami Immigration and Wages in the United States This table
shows the estimated effect of immigration on the wages of
workers, depending on their educational level.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Direct Investment
To continue our examination of what
happens to wages and rentals when
factors can move across borders, we
turn now to look at how capital can
move from one country to another
through foreign direct investment
(FDI), which occurs when a firm from
one country owns a company in
another country.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
Greenfield Investment
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Our focus in this section will be on Greenfield investment,
that is, the building of new plants abroad.
We model FDI as a movement of capital between
countries, just as we modeled the movement of labor
between countries.
The key question we ask is: How does the movement of
capital into a country affect the earnings of labor and
capital there?
This question is similar to the one we asked for
immigration, so the earlier graphs that we developed can
be modified to address FDI.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Short Run: Specific-Factors Model
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-11 (1 of 2)
Increase in the Capital Stock in the Short Run
In panel (a), an inflow of capital into the
manufacturing sector shifts out the
marginal product of labor curve in that
sector.
Copyright © 2011 Worth Publishers· International Economics· Feenstra/Taylor, 2/e.
The equilibrium in the labor market
moves from point A to B, and the wage
increases from W to W’. Labor used in
the manufacturing industry increases
from 0ML to 0ML. These workers are
pulled out of agriculture, so the labor
used there shrinks from 0AL to 0AL’.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Short Run: Specific-Factors Model
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-11 (2 of 2)
Increase in the Capital Stock in the Short Run (continued)
In panel (b), with the inflow of capital into
manufacturing, and the extra labor used in
that sector, the output of manufacturing
increases.
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Because labor has been drawn out
of agriculture, the output of that
sector falls. These changes in
outputs are shown by the outward
shift of the PPF (due to the increase
in capital) and the movement from
point A to point B.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FDI in the Short Run: Specific-Factors Model
Effect of FDI on the Rentals:
With regard to the rental on land, we know that with an
inflow of FDI, fewer workers are employed in agriculture,
and each acre of land cannot be used as intensively.
The value of marginal product of land, RK = PA • MPTA, falls.
If MPTA falls and PA remains unchanged, then land rental
must fall.
One way to measure the impact of FDI on the rental of
capital is by the value of the marginal product of capital, or
RK = PM • MPKM. However, using this method is difficult to
determine how the rental on capital changes.
Another method is to take the revenue earned in
manufacturing and subtract the payments to labor.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Short Run: Specific-Factors Model
FIGURE 5-12
The Effect of an Increase in Capital Stock on the Rental on Capital
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
By carefully tracing through how
the capital-labor ratio in
manufacturing is affected by the
movement from A to C (where
wages and hence the capitallabor ratio do not change),
and then the movement from C
to B (where wages and the
capital-labor ratio both increase),
we conclude that the rental on
capital is lower at point B than at
point A. Therefore, the rental on
capital declines when the capital
stock increases through FDI.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FDI in the Long Run
To analyze the impact of FDI in the long run, we continue
with the same assumptions as before.
• There are two industries, computers and shoes, with
two factors, labor and capital.
• Computers are capital intensive and shoes are labor
intensive.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Long Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-13 (1 of 2)
Increase in the Capital Stock in the Long Run
In panel (a) the top and bottom axes of the box diagram measure
the amount of labor in the economy, and the right and left axes
measure the amount of capital. The initial equilibrium is at point A.
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2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Long Run
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-13 (2 of 2)
Increase in the Capital Stock in the Long Run (continued)
In panel (b), with the increase in the amount of capital at Home from
increased FDI, the PPF shifts outward.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
2 Movement of Capital between Countries:
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI in the Long Run
Effect of FDI on Outputs and Factor Prices
• Capital increases due to FDI.
• As the Rybczynski Theorem states, the increase in
capital through FDI has increased the output of the
capital-intensive industry and reduced the output of the
labor-intensive industry.
• This change in output is achieved with no change in
the capital labor ratios in either industry. In figure 5-13,
OC’B and OSB have same slopes as OCA and OSA.
• Because capital-labor ratios are unchanged, the wage
and the rental on capital are also unchanged.
• In the long run model, an inflow of either factor of
production will leave factor prices unchanged.
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APPLICATION
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
The Effect of FDI on Rentals and Wages in Singapore
To analyze the impact of FDI on wages and rentals, we can
use two methods:
• First, we can estimate the marginal product of capital in
Singapore, using a production function that applies to the
entire economy.
• The second approach involves the following:
• If capital was rented instead of purchased, what would
the rental be?
• The rental agency needs to make the same rate of
return on renting the capital equipment that it would
make if it invested elsewhere.
• The real rental is: R
PK

P
(i  d )
P
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APPLICATION
The Effect of FDI on Rentals and Wages in Singapore
TABLE 5-2 (1 of 2)
Real Rental and Wages in Singapore
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
In part A, a production function approach is used to construct the factor
prices, and the real rental falls over time because of the growth in
capital. As a result, implied productivity growth is negative.
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APPLICATION
The Effect of FDI on Rentals and Wages in Singapore
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
TABLE 5-2 (2 of 2)
Real Rental and Wages in Singapore
In part B, the rental and wages are constructed from data on payments
to capital and labor in Singapore, and real wages grow over time, while
the real rental either grows or falls slightly. As a result, implied
productivity growth is positive.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
APPLICATION
The Effect of FDI on Rentals and Wages in Singapore
• According to the calculated real rentals in part B of Table
5-2, there is little evidence of a downward fall in the
rentals over time.
• There is also evidence that real wages grew over time.
• This is not what the long run model predicts. The model
predicts unchanged factor prices with an inflow of capital.
• That real wages are growing in Singapore, with little
change in the real rental, is an indication that there is
productivity growth in the economy, which leads to an
increase in the marginal product of labor and in the real
wage. ■
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HEADLINES
The Myth of Asia’s Miracle
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Once upon a time, Western opinion leaders found themselves
both impressed and frightened by the extraordinary growth
rates achieved by a set of Eastern economies.
- Called into question the dominance of Western
power and ideology
- The leaders of those nations did not share our faith
in free markets or unlimited civil liberties
- What time period are we referring to??
The 1960s
Asian economies are not too different from the growth of the
Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960.
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Gains from Immigration
Foreign investment and immigration are both controversial
policy issues.
Most countries have at some point controlled FDI but later
became open to foreign investment.
However, almost all countries impose limits on immigration.
U.S. immigration controls were established by the Quota
Law of 1921. It allows a limited number of persons arriving
annually from each country of origin.
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Gains from Immigration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965
revised the country-specific limits and allowed immigration
on a first-come first-served basis up to a limit.
Subsequent revisions to the immigration laws in the U.S.
have changed policies, including:
•Penalties for employers hiring illegal immigrants
•Allowing some illegal immigrants to gain citizenship
•Tightening border controls
•Deporting other illegal immigrants
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Gains from Immigration
Why is immigration so controversial?
Some groups oppose the spending of public funds on
immigration.
Other groups fear the competition for jobs created by an
inflow of workers.
Does immigration provide an overall gain to the host
country, not including the gains to the immigrants
themselves?
Are there overall gains to the destination country, in the
same way as we have found overall gain from trade?
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Gains from Immigration
Immigration benefits the host country in the specific factors
model.
If we include the immigrant earnings with Foreign income,
then we find that emigration benefits the Foreign country,
too. The same argument can be made for FDI.
Also, an inflow of capital benefits the host country not
including the extra earning of foreign capital.
If we count those extra earnings then FDI also benefits the
source country for the capital.
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Gains from Immigration
FIGURE 5-14
World Labor Market
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Initially, Home has OL workers
and Foreign has O*L workers.
The Home wage is W, as
determined at point A, which is
higher than the Foreign wage W*
at A*.
Workers will move from Foreign
to Home to receive higher wages.
The equilibrium with full migration
is at point C, where wages are
equalized at W.
The gain to Home from migration
is measured by triangle ABC,
and triangle A*BC represents the
gains to Foreign.
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Gains from Immigration
World Gains from Migration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
FIGURE 5-14 (revisited)
Copyright © 2011 Worth Publishers· International Economics· Feenstra/Taylor, 2/e.
Combining the gains to the
Home and Foreign countries,
we obtain the triangular region
ABA*, the world gains from
immigration.
This magnitude is not too
difficult to measure in practice.
Turning the triangle on its side,
its base equals (W – W*), the
difference in the Home and
Foreign wage in the absence
of any migration.
The height of the triangle is (L
– L), the number of foreign
workers that would emigrate in
the equilibrium with full
migration. So the area of the
triangle is 1/2(W – W*) • (L –
L).
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SIDE BAR
Gains from Immigration
Gains for the Foreign Country The wages received by migrants
are often returned to their families.
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
TABLE 5-3
Workers’ Remittances and Net Foreign Aid, 2007
Shown here are the remittances received by various countries from their
citizens working abroad. In many cases, these remittances are larger than the
official aid received by the countries. An exception was Sudan, which was
experiencing a humanitarian crisis in 2007 so that aid was high.
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APPLICATION
Gains from Migration
TABLE 5-4 (1 of 2)
Gains from Immigration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
The results from several studies of immigration are shown in this table. The
second column shows the amount of immigration (as a percentage of the
Home labor force), and the third column shows the increase in Home GDP or
the increase in GDP of the region.
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APPLICATION
Gains from Migration
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
TABLE 5-4 (2 of 2)
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3 Gains from Labor and Capital Flows
Gains from Foreign Direct Investment
FIGURE 5-15
World Capital Market
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
With 0K units of capital at Home,
the Home rental is R, at point A.
The remaining capital 0*K is in
Foreign, and the Foreign rental is
R*, at point A*.
Capital will move from Home to
Foreign to receive a higher rental.
The equilibrium with full capital
flows is at point B, where rentals
are equalized at R.
Triangle ABC measures the gains
to Home from the capital outflow,
and triangle A*BC measures the
gains to Foreign.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
1. Holding the amount of capital and land fixed in both
industries, as in the specific-factors model, immigration
leads to a fall in wages. This was the case, for
example, with the mass migration to the New World in
the nineteenth century.
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K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
2. As wages fall due to immigration, the marginal
products of the specific factors (capital and land) rise,
and therefore their rentals also increase.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
3. Fixing the amount of capital and land in a country is a
reasonable assumption in the short run, but in the
longer run, firms will move capital between industries,
which will change the effect of immigration on wages
and rentals.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
4. In a long-run model with two goods and two factors,
both of which are perfectly mobile between the
industries, additional labor from immigration will be
absorbed entirely by the labor-intensive industry.
Furthermore, the labor-intensive industry will also
absorb additional capital and labor from the capitalintensive industry, so its capital–labor ratio does not
change in the long run. Because the capital–labor ratio
in each industry does not change, the wage and rentals
remain the same as well. This results in what is known
as factor price insensitivity.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
5. According to the Rybczynski theorem, immigration will
lead to an increase in output in the labor-intensive
industry and a decrease in the output of the capitalintensive industry. This result is different from that of
the short-run specific-factors model, in which
immigration leads to increased output in both
industries.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
6. Besides trade in goods and the movement of labor,
another way that countries interact with one another is
through investment. When a company owns property,
plant, or equipment in another country, it is called
foreign direct investment, or FDI.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
7. In the short run, FDI lowers the rentals on capital and
land and raises wages. In the long run, the extra capital
can be absorbed in the capital-intensive industry
without any change in the wage or rental.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
8. According to the Rybczynski theorem, FDI will lead to
an increase in the output of the capital-intensive
industry and a decrease in the output of the laborintensive industry.
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Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
K
e y POINTS
Term
KEY
9. The movement of capital and labor generates overall
gains for both the source and host countries, provided
that the income of the emigrants is included in the
source country’s welfare. Hence, there are global gains
from immigration and FDI.
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K
e y TERMS
Term
KEY
specific-factors model
Chapter 5: Movements of Labor and Capital between Countries
Rybczynski theorem
factor price insensitivity
real value-added
foreign direct investment (FDI)
equilibrium with full migration
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