Theme 3 : Geographical Issues on a Continental Scale North and South America The Americas: fractures, competition & integration – The American Continent between tensions and regional integration The Americas: Power of the North and Assertion of the South I. A Cultural Mosaic Environmental Threats Key questions: • To what extent does the American continent portray a model of unequal development? • How extensive is North and South American integration? A. North America: Major Pole of the Triad 1. US and Canada are the two major powers of North America – Trade between the 2 nations has doubled since the creation of NAFTA – Competition remains strong • Heavy industry, automobile, lumber – Canadian economy very dependent on US market 2. US economy the most powerful and most diversified in the world – On continental scale, the U.S. embodies an attractive model of a superpower giant – Top investors in the continent, esp Canada & Mexico Utilities 2% Corporate Education services Management1% 2% Mining 2% US Economy by Sector 2011 Agriculture 1% Other services 3% Waste services 3% Real Estate 14% State/Local Govt 10% Construction 4% Arts/entertainment 4% Information 4% Finance, Insurance 9% Fed Govt 5% Non-durable manufacturing 6% Retail 6% Wholesale 6% Health/Social Care 9% Durable Manufacturing 6% 3. Canada: rich in natural resources and major exporter of raw materials – SE Canada contains major metropolises (Toronto & Montreal) – Its extensive integration in the US contributed to the emergence of a vast cross-border region referred to as Main Street Canada’s Industrial Heartland • Most of Canada’s Industries are Located near the St. Lawrence Lowlands and these 4 cities: – – – – Quebec City Montreal Ottawa Toronto • Huge labor population • Near a great source of water for manufacturing and power • 60% of Canada's wealth is located in these areas • Services: 83% of people live in cities Canada’s Huge Heartland • agricultural • mining (iron, copper, nickel, uranium) • Energy (hydroelectricity, petroleum) B. Integration of emerging countries in globalization 1. Brazil stands out as the regional power of South America – 1st country in FDI on the subcontinent, acts as a counterweight to US domination – Marked by major social inequalities 2. Mexico, Argentina and Chili sometimes referred to as “Jaguars” • Mexico – 1st foreign investor 2nd recipient of FDI in Latin America – Proximity of US • asset (exports) & drawback (dependence) – Role model of insertion in the world economy • Chile (Copper, fruit) & Argentina (Wheat, soy bean) – Major exporters of raw materials and agricultural foodstuffs 3. Venezuela, Columbia & Peru dependent on exporting raw materials • Venezuela – 7th world petroleum exporter – Holds largest oil reserves on the planet • Peru – GDP tripled from 2000 to 2010 • Columbia – Exports coffee and coal GDP of Countries in North and South America Country GDP/capita (dollars) The USA 47,283 Canada 46,214 Uruguay 11,997 Chili 11,827 Brazil 10,817 Mexico 9,565 Argentina 9,138 Columbia 6,273 Bolivia 1,858 Nicaragua 1,126 Haiti 672 Source: IMF 2010 Summing it all up • Video: 3’24 How are the Americas interconnected?