Hou, Xingquan侯兴泉

Report
THE GENETIC POSITION OF FENGKAI DIALECTS:
EVIDENCES FROM PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES
从音韵特征看岭南古都封开方言的历史地位
Xingquan Hou, Department of Chinese Language and
Literature, Jinan university & Institute of Chinese Dialects
侯兴泉;暨南大学中文系;暨南大学汉语方言研究中心
1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF FENGKAI
封开简介
from Baidu.com
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Fenkai(named Guangxin in history), located in the
northwest of Guangdong, was a very important city
in the history of Southern China. Especially in Han
dynasty, it was the political, economic and cultural
center of Southern China.
封开是岭南的文化古都,古广信县(辖地主要包括今天
的梧州和封开封川一带)所在地。虽然学界对广信治所
是在梧州还是封川仍有争议,但西汉至南朝梁初广信一
直是古苍梧郡的郡治所在地,这点是毋庸置疑的。尤其
是两汉期间,广信还是交趾刺史部(东汉改名交州)的
治所所在地,是名副其实的岭南首府,为当时整个岭南
的政治、经济和文化中心。
2. PREVIOUS RESEARCHES ON FENGKAI
DIALECCTS 前人对封开方言的认识
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Guoquan Ye & Kangning Luo (1995) proposed that
Cantonese had been formed in Guangxin located in middle
area of Xijiang River. But the view was questioned by many
scholars, the main reason is the lack of linguistic evidence.
Although Kangning Luo (1996, 1998) found that Feng
Chuan (Luo Dong) dialect still has voiced consonants and
took it as a critical linguistic evidence, but because he was
not familiar with the dialect, part of his arguments and
conclusions are incorrect.
叶国泉、罗康宁(1995)提出粤语形成于西江中游广信一带。但
是该观点受到较多质疑,主要原因在于缺乏语言学的材料论证。
罗康宁(1996、1998)虽然从《封开县志》中找到封川(罗董)
话保留浊音的材料并加以论证,但由于他不熟悉材料导致论证和
结论有误。
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Lianjin Li (2006) classified Fengkai dialects and other
dialects around Fengkai which were called Goulou
Cantonese by other scholars as Pinghua (different from
Cantonese), and he argued that Goulou Cantonese,
Pinghua and other unnamed dialects of Guangxi were
sister dialects, one of which should be considered
authoritative in history , and that authoritative one was
Guangxin dialect. Why? Li had no in-depth discussion.
李连进(2006)把封开及其周围的勾漏片粤语归为平话(有
别于粤语),认为勾漏片方言、平话和土话是一种方言,它
们应该存在过权威代表方言,这个古代南方方言的权威代表
点应是当时的广信话。封开方言或广信话为什么能够成为平
话的权威代表方言,李文并没有进行深入的论述。
3. PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FENGKAI DIALECTS
封开方言的音韵特点
3.1 Many ancient Chinese phonological features can be
found. 保留有较多的古音特征
1)Many consonants of ancient Fei group are pronounced as p or ph
非组较多保留重唇音
2)Some consonants of Middle Chinese Zhi group are still pronounced as t
知组较多保留舌头音
3)Voiced plosive(b and d) are common in dialects of south Fengkai
并、定母较多保留浊音
4)Some finals of the third and forth grade of ancient Chinese are different
个别韵摄仍保留三四等的区别
5)Finals of Fan of Middle Chinese remains with –m in dialects of North Fengkai
咸摄合口三等凡范韵韵尾白读基本仍读-m
6)Some repeated finals (Chong Yun) of Middle Chinese are different
个别重韵(如咍和泰,之和脂,鱼和虞)仍有区别
7)Has independent Yin Shang tone
有独立的阳上调
3.2 CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH CANTONESE AND PINGHUA
跟粤语和平话(尤其是桂南平话)保留有非常密切的关系
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Ming and Wei of ancient Chinese Initials pronounce the same
明微不分
Cong and Xie of ancient Chinese Initials pronounce the same
从邪不分
Most Chuan and Shan of ancient Chinese Initials pronounce the
same 船禅基本不分
Yi and Ri of ancient Chinese Initials (following with i-)
pronounce the same 疑日细音基本不分
Xi and Xiao of ancient Chinese Initials (following with u-)
merged with Fei and Fu 溪晓合口多跟非敷合流
Most Yi and Xia of ancient Chinese Initials (following with u-)
pronounce the same 以匣合口基本不分
Most initials of ancient Zhi and Zhao Group pronounce
the same 知照基本不分
 Divisions of ancient Xiao, Xian and Shan of the first and
second grade are different, while Divisions of the third
and forth grade pronounce the same
效、咸、山一二等基本有别,三四等基本不分
 Divisions of Xian and Shen, Shan and Zhen are different
咸摄与深摄、山摄与臻摄基本不混
 Most of them have independent Yang Shang tone
大都保留浊上调
 Yin Ru tone was developed into two tones according to
the height of vowel in most of these dialects
阴入大多一分为二
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4. THE STATUS OF FENGKAI DIALECTS
封开方言的历史定位
By historical comparison, we argue that Fengkai
dialects, Cantonese and Pinghua are sister dialects. For
more ancient Chinese phonological features remaining
in Fengkai dialects than Cantonese and Pinghua, we
assume that the homeland of Cantonese and Pinghua is
located in the region of Guangxin (around Fengkai
today).
通过比较,基本可以确认封开方言、粤语和平话(尤其是
桂南平话)应属同一种方言。鉴于封开方言兼有平话和粤
语的诸多特征且存古性较强,我们有理由相信粤语和平话
最重要的一个源头在古广信(今封开)一带。
5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EASTERN AND
WESTERN CANTONESE 东部粤语和西部粤语之间的关系
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Zhenfa Liu (2000) argued that modern Cantonese
spoken in the Pearl River Delta, Xijiang River,
western part of Guangdong (we call it eastern
Cantonese) was brought by the immigrants of the
late Song Dynasty and he also offered many
linguistic evidences (mainly phonological evidences).
刘镇发(2000)认为现代粤语(珠三角、西江流域、广
东西部一带的粤语)源于宋末移民。并找到不少的语言
学证据(主要是音韵证据)。
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But most of the phonological evidences he listed are
actual pronunciation of categories of initials or
finals in ancient Chinese, such as the actual
pronunciation of Fei, Yi, Xia, Zhi group and so on.
不过刘先生所列举的音韵证据不少是从发音音值的角度
来论述的,如:无浊声母;非组为f;精知庄章组绝大
部分为塞擦音、擦音;疑母仅在洪音保持鼻音;日母几
乎失去鼻音;匣母二等合口失声母后读[w]声母;晓母
转为f;溪母由kh转为h,部分合口转为[f];咸合三与部
分开二已经不闭口;曾梗二摄的文白异读中,白读的舌
位比其他南方话更接近北方话;直至上个世纪,广州话
的元音[i/y/u]还没(有条件地)复元音化为[ei/oey/ou]
等等。
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According to the comparison of actual pronunciation
with Ancient Chinese of Song dynasty, he assumed
that modern Cantonese (eastern Cantonese) do not
have any relationship with those Cantonese spoken
in Siyap, southern Guangxi and northern
Guangdong (most of them are called western
Cantonese).
刘先生以此来跟宋末通语来对比并据此否定现代珠三角
一带的粤语跟广西南部、广东北部和部分四邑地区粤语
(主要是桂南平话、勾漏片粤语和四邑粤语)有关系,
这是值得商榷的。
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While some other scholars, such as Junru Zhang & Min
Liang (1982,1996,1999), Shuguan Wei (1996), Lianjin Li
(1995, 1999, 2000, 2005, 2007) argued that Pinghua is a
independent dialect from Cantonese. Many phonological
features offered by them were still features of actual
pronunciation.
与此类似,张均如、梁敏(1982,1996,1999),韦树关(1996),
李连进(1995, 1999, 2000, 2005, 2007)等学者认为平话(具
体范围不完全一致)是独立的汉语大方言,有别于粤语。不
过他们所列举的音韵特征也主要是音值特征。
But we have different views.
 First of all, we have no idea of knowing what the
actual pronunciation of Chinese is in the latter Song
dynasty. A convincing evidence of comparison
between dialects and ancient Chinese is the sound
category, not the actual pronunciation.
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我们对此有不同的看法。
 首先,宋末通语的实际读音究竟是怎样的,我们没办法z
准确知晓,平时我们所谈的音值只是拟音,拟音的目的
说白了就是更好地称说音类而已。所以方音能够跟古代
通语比较的,可信的唯有音类而已。
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Secondly, Mr. Yuanren Zhao (1916/2002) has
mentioned to distinguish the sound category (historical
classification) and the actual pronunciation (actual
physiological sound): the former can reflect genetic
relationship, while the latter may be just similar.
其次,赵元任先生(1916/2002)早就在《中国语言的问
题》一文中提醒我们要区分音类(历史的分类)和实际的
音(实际所发语音的生理音),前者可以反映同源关系,
而后者可能只是相似。
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In fact, the Eastern Cantonese (around the Pearl
River Delta) and the Western Cantonese (around
Fengkai) are closely related. They are similar in
the development of sound categories, and many of
those features are distinct with other Chinese
dialects. For detailed discussions, see Yun
Mai(2012) and Xingquan Hou(2010).
实际上,以珠三角为中心的东部粤语和以封开(古广
信)为中心的西部粤语有非常密切的联系,他们在音
类发展方面具有非常多的共性,而这些共性有不少是
跟其他汉语方言明显有别的。详细讨论见麦耘
(2008/2012)与侯兴泉(2010)。
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For the sound categorical features of Cantonese and
Pinghua, they have much in common in the stages of
previous and latter middle Chinese, Cantonese and
Pinghua are descended from the ancient Cantonese.
Viewing from the actual pronunciation of sound categories,
we can see that Cantonese around PRD was greatly
affected by the immigrants of latter Song dynasty just as
Mr Liu had told us. However, the immigrants did not
affect the main sound categories of Cantonese and
Pinghua.
从粤语和平话的音类分合既有中古以前的音韵特点,又有中古
以后的音韵特点来看,古今粤语和平话是一脉相承的。从音类
的实际发音(音值)来看,可以看到宋以后珠玑巷移民虽然对
珠三角一带的粤语产生重要影响,因为珠三角一带的粤语在音
值的存古性方面明显要比西部粤语差。但宋后移民的影响主要
在音值,她并未从根本上动摇粤语和平话的主要音类关系。
6. CONCLUSION 结论
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Fengkai has been the political, economic and cultural
center of Southern China over 500 years in history, and
Fengkai dialects has also played a very important role in
the history of Cantonese and Pinghua.
By historical comparison, we concluded that Cantonese
and Pinghua are sister dialects.
Moreover, dialects around Fengkai were one of the most
important sources of modern Cantonese and Pinghua.
封开凭借其在历史上的政治、文化及经济上的地位曾经是岭南
的首府,而今虽然沦为粤西北的一个偏僻潦倒的山乡,但正因
为地理环境相对封闭,因此在语音上得以保留较多的古音。由
此也可以反过来说明其曾经的重要地位。
通过跟平话及珠三角地区粤语的比较,发现封开方言的音韵结
构跟平话(尤其是桂南平话)及珠三角粤语有非常密切的联系,
以此推断它们当属同一种方言。鉴于封开方言在音类及音值方
面存古性在诸粤语和平话中相当突出,以此认定它是粤语和平
话早期的最重要的源头之一当是可信的。
THANK YOU!
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