Is Agriculture Friend or Foe for the Environment

Report
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Can We Feed the World?
Land of Agriculture in World
How We Starve?
An Ecological Perspective on Agriculture
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History of Agriculture
Animals,plants,food etc.
Sustainable
Nile Valley, Middle East, China
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To overcome environmental limitations
New solution= New environmental problem
http://photo.elsoar.com/wp-content/images/Agriculture-Photo-1.jpg
Europe 22%
 Australia 57%
 United States 44%
Enough for today…
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What if human population increase?
http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/taylor.hp/Biology381/topic-03-Large.htm
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According to some agricultural scientists
and corporations…
GMCs Production per unit area
http://cdn3.chartsbin.com/chartimages/l_578_838a080875c163be97c0776240f9ba35
http://www.ediblegeography.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/05/Agriculture-landuse-2000.jpg
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Undernourishment
 Lack of sufficient calories
 Dramatic, fast-acting
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Malnourishment
 Lack of chemical components
 Long-term, insidious
The
supply of the protein
Echological, Environmental and Ethical…
http://images.sodahead.com/polls/002120661/5132344595_starving_children_answer_1_xlarge.
jpeg
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World War II, At the end of the 20th century34 countries…
Food distribution problem
 Poor people,
 Expensive transportation ,
Food aid/ short term
Solution: Local Production!
‘’Give a man a fish and feed him for a day,teach a
man how to fish and feed him for a life’’
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http://www.konsensushaber.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Susuzluk.jpg
*Daily Calories Per Capita
http://chartsbin.com/view/1150
*Percentage of Population Undernourished
http://chartsbin.com/view/6997
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Half million plant/ 3.000 as agricultural crops
150 species cultivated on a large scale
Food provides 14 crop species as wheat,rice,maize,
potatoes,sugarcane,soybean,barley…
More than 80% calories of consumed by human
beings…
http://www.dfz.bg/assets/6307/agriculture.jpg
Small-grain with large world trade..
United States, Canada, Australia..
 2 million in 1996 2.2 Billion tons in 2005
 Full of capacity or stabilized demand?
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Farming of food in aquatic habitats
 Provide nutritional quality
 Culturally important instances..
Yellowtail from Japan, crayfish from U.S.
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http://www.globalpartnershipforoceans.org/sites/default/files/images/Ghana_Aquaculture.gif
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Productive, due to flowing water
Mariculture (farming of ocean fish)
U.S, Canada; Shellfish
http://www.environmental-watch.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/shutterstock_88536259.jpg
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Novel ecological conditions because of
farming..
Agroecosystems and 6 difference with
natural ecosystems..
http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/soil-thefoundation-of-agriculture-84224268
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Monoculture (large areas planted with single
species)
Neat rows
Biological Diversity
Plowing
Genetic Modifications
http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/agriculture-impact-climatechange-monoculture-farm-photo.jpg
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High quality agricultural soils… best of
Low-land rice needs heavy water-saturated soil
Watermelon – very salty soil
Limiting: to make a soil more productive
Liebig’s minimum law
20 chemical essential elements
Macronutrients/ Micronutrient
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Were Liebig always right?
 Nitrogen and phosohorus in proteins example…
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Synergistic Effect
http://www.greencareconcept.nl/eng/pagina/141/prevention-throughnutrition.html)
Advantages: It makes farming much more
efficient, keeping down costs. Machines and
procedures can be used totally systematically
on a large scale.
Disadvantages: It removes all of the diversity
of the natural land and thereby eliminates the
habitat of almost all of the other plants and
animals .
It makes the entire crop vulnerable to diseases
or environmental changes.
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Organic farming is typically considered to three
qualities;
It is more like natural ecosystems than
monocultures.
It minimizes negative environmental impacts.
The food that results from it doesn’t contain
artificial compounds.
IFOAM’s Definition:
“Organic agriculture is a production system
which maintains sustainability of
ecosystem,lands and human health. The
purpose of organic farming is to combine
innovation,tradition and science to benefit
our common environment and to maintain a
good life with all people in fair relations.”
http://www.qways.gr/en/images/new.qways.gr/800pxifoam_logo.svg.png
Organic Sales by Category
U.S. Total
Livestock
Products
% of U.S.
Organic Sales
Iowa Total
% of Iowa
Organic Sales
$906,207,000
28.7%
$20,560,000
28.7%
Vegetables
689,992,000
21.9%
803,615
1.1%
Field Crops
*526,780,000
16.7%
*34,741,216
48.6%
Fruits & Tree
Nuts
444,747,000
14.1%
110,085
0.2%
Livestock
316,470,000
10.0%
14,679,000
20.5%
Floriculture/Bed
ding
179,657,000
5.7%
192,678
0.3%
83,233,000
2.6%
121,888
0.2%
Berries
* – Sales may be higher than stated due to un-disclosed values
(Source: USDA)
Certified and Exempt Organic Farms in USA
Organic Food Sales in US
http://iowaindependent.com/27755/iowa-9th-innation-for-organic-farms-low-on-direct-consumeroutlets#sthash.cL1OX9FX.dpuf
Tractors in potato Field
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Combination of crops
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Broad range of genotypes
http://www.frutasberi.com/images/cultivos/bg_top_e
n.jpg
GIVE AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD
TO MONOCULTURE AND EXPLAIN
THIS METHOD.
It depends on the maintenance of a productive
agriculture that sustains yields and provides the use
of local resources while trying to block harmful
environmental and socio-economic impacts of new
technologies
http://www.field-studiescouncil.org/urbaneco/images/011-foodchain.jpg
Domestic animals are used for human transportation
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/0pT6Xnnxcfw/T4_R7b5SUI/AAAAAAAAeUU/ysbtyhsbwT4/s1600
http://www.healthyalterego.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/gmO-tomato.jpg
Increase of GMC according to years
http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090218/full/457949a.html
Percentage Changes in Yields Due to Environmental Factors From Present to 2050
http://rootsforgrowth.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/05/31.png
. Soil erosion
. Sediment transport and deposition downstream
. On-site pollution from overuse and secondary effects of
fertilizers and pesticides
. Off-site pollution of other ecosystems (soil,water,air)
. Deforestation
. Desertification
. Degradation of aquifers
. Salinization
. Accumulation of toxic metals
. Accumulation of toxic organic compounds
. Loss of biodiversity
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALp
3y9b0Aeo
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Plow
ing_ecomat.jpg
Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are
removed from the Earth's surface by exogenic processes
such as wind or water flow, and then transported and
deposited in other locations.
http://earthwatchunlocked.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/matt-andersen-drought-and-erosion-takes-ittoll-on-grazing-land.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erosion
http://en.hdyo.org/assets/ask-question-2ce96e3e01c85a38a0d39c61cfae6d42c.jpg
. Contour Plowing
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/99/65699-0047FCC0E1C.jpg
Contour plowing or contour farming is the
farming practice of plowing and/or planting
across a slope following its elevation contour lines.
These contour lines create a water break which
reduces the formation of rills and gullies during
times of heavy water run-off; which is a major
cause of top soil loss and soil erosion.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contour_pl
owing
. No-till Agriculture
http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/nvswcd/images/notill2.jpg
No-till farming (also called zero tillage or
direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or
pasture from year to year without disturbing
the soil through tillage. No-till is an
agricultural technique which increases the
amount of water that infiltrates into the soil
and increases organic matter retention and
cycling of nutrients in the soil. In many
agricultural regions it can eliminate soil
erosion.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-till_farming
http://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=images&cd=&docid=hIth9DGmnDpJ4
M&tbnid=fmtEo3jL9sS1xM:&ved=0CAIQjBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Farch1design.com%2Fblog%2Fwpcontent%2Fuploads%2F2010%2F10%2Fpesticides1.jpg&ei=OXlzU9CyIemp7AafjoF4&bvm=bv.66699033,d.ZGU
&psig=AFQjCNEjtOw3nd9G3qDyxq1F2aN3WKqjlA&ust=1400162998175164
Pesticides are substances meant for attracting,
seducing, destroying, or mitigating any pest. They are
a class of biocide. The most common use of pesticides
is as plant protection products (also known as crop
protection products), which in general protect plants
from damaging influences such as weeds, plants,
diseases or insects.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide
http://ucanr.edu/blogs/anrnews/blogfiles/3651.jpg
Grazing is the removal of live tissue from a
living plant. Grazing differs from true
predation because the organism being eaten
from is not generally killed, and it differs from
parasitism as the two organisms do not live
together, nor is the grazer necessarily so
limited in what it can eat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grazing
http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/sciencematters/assets_c/2013/04/desert2-thumb-480xauto-4312.jpg
Desertification is a type of land degradation in
which a relatively dry land region becomes
increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of
water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is
caused by a variety of factors, such as climate
change and human activities.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desertification
. Changes land cover
. Increase in carbondioxide
. Species diversity
. Fire
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/
44/Seawifs_global_biosphere.jpg/1024pxSeawifs_global_biosphere.jpg

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