### Proposal Presentation

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http://www.scienceclarified.com/Di-El/Electric-Arc.html
Chris Rowan | Anthony Thompson | Philip de la Vergne | Aaron Wascom | Brandon Sciortino
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The goal of this payload is
to understand the
relationship of
temperature and humidity
on electric breakdown
voltage.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paschen_Curves.PNG
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
Recreate as closely as possible Paschen’s curve using a
corona discharge

Deviations from Paschen’s curve will be used to understand
the relation of temperature and humidity on the minimum
breakdown voltage
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
At the conclusion of our flight, our payload will have stored
data during flight on:
o Pressure
o Temperature
o Humidity
o Time
o Voltage across the spark gap
o Currents across the spark gap indicating an electrical breakdown
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
Corona Discharge: An electrical discharge due to ionization of the fluid
around a conductor

Spark Gap: A space between two high-potential terminals (as of an
induction coil or spark plug) through which pass discharges of electricity

Electric Potential: The maximum amount of energy which can be
exerted by each unit of charge in the conductor that is experiencing a
force due to an electric field
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
Electric breakdown will be determined by magnitudes of
current across the spark gap

Current carried by corona discharge is an integral of the
current density over the surface of the conductor

Current carried by corona discharge is measured in
microamperes
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
Coronal discharges are a result of chain reactions in which
neutral atoms are ionized by high energy particles in the
atmosphere.

When neutral atoms are ionized they release free electrons
which then feel coulomb forces due to the electric field.

The positively and negatively charged particles are
accelerated in opposite directions and given a kinetic
energy
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
The chain reactions are commonly called electron
avalanches because as the kinetic energy in free electrons
in the field increase they gain the ability to ionize other
neutral atoms they collide with.
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9
30k
Voltage
20k
10k
Pressure
50k
100k
This data graph can be used as a way to predict the voltage values,
while neglecting temperature, humidity, and air ionization, which are
needed to successfully discharge across a spark gap
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
DC/DC converter shall provide a voltage capable of creating
an electrical breakdown across the spark gap throughout
the flight

Spark gap will be set to a distance allowing for an electrical
breakdown to occur throughout the flight within the power
and structural constraints
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
Accurately timestamp the ambient pressure, temperature, and humidity

Accurately timestamp the times in which a current indicating electrical
breakdown occurs

Data will be collected at a time interval that will observe all incremental
changes in breakdown voltage

Data collected shall be stored by an archive system capable of being
extracted, processed, and analyzed at the conclusion of the flight

Ammeter shall be accurate to the microampere
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
The payload will remain fully functional during the thermal,
vacuum, and shock preflight tests

The payload will have one face with two 17 cm holes cut for
the LaACES interface

The payload shall not weigh more than 500g
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
Parts are readily available at a reasonable price

Mass and size of the parts are within the constraints of the
o DC to HV DC converter
o Ammeter Design
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
The analog signals from the sensors will be conditioned
before entering the Analog-Digital converter and stored to
the EEPROM via the Basic Stamp

The BalloonSat shall control the voltage amplification of the
DC/DC converter via the Digital-Analog converter

The BalloonSat shall store true binary values for current to
the EEPROM indicating an electrical breakdown
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
The payload will have dimensions of 17 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm

At least ¾ inch wall thickness

The 17 cm holes will be on the 17 cm face and through the

The top face will have a lid for access
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
Each part will be attached to two walls for stability during
flight and landing

Cables will be as direct as possible to prevent cables acting
as antennae

The spark device will be in an individual compartment with
holes for ventilation
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Part
Weight
Uncertainty
65g
+/-15
BalloonSat
70g
+/-5
Power Source
100g
+/-50
60g
+/-20
DC to HV DC
Converter
30g
+/- 20
Ammeter
40g
+/- 15
Total
365g
+/- 125g
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Current
Power
mA(4*h)
DC to HV DC Converter
250 mA MAX
1000mAh
BalloonSat
60 mA
240mAh
36 mA
144mAh
Total
346 mA
1384 mAh
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
All documents will follow version control as stated in team
contract

Project Manager coordinates functional groups

Team meetings at least 3 times a week


Risk Management
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Responsibility
Team Member
Anthony Thompson
Documentation
Chris Rowan
Mechanical Engineer
Anthony Thompson
Electrical Engineer
Philip de la Vergne
Software Developer
Aaron Wascom
Calibration
Brandon Sciortino
Electronics
Philip de la Vergne
Integration
Chris Rowan
Data Processing
Anthony Thompson
Analysis
Chris Rowan
Testing
Brandon Sciortino
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Spectral Analysis
By:
Chris Rowan
Anthony Thompson
Philip de la Vergne
Aaron Wascom
Brandon Sciortino
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Mission Goal
 This LaACES payload will measure spectral signatures
emitted over a wide spectrum of terrains with the use of
remote sensing, more specifically infrared.
http://www.intechopen.com/books/biomass-and-remote-sensing-of-biomass/introduction-to-remote-sensing-of-biomass
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Science Objectives
 Identify different topography features flown over during
flight to establish ground truth
 Collect and record images at high altitude
 Compare and contrast infrared images of the
topography with other remote sensing sources and
Team Chosen
 Determine the latitude, longitude, and altitude of each
image location
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Technical Objectives
 Measure the reflectance properties of various terrains
 Successfully launch an optical sensor payload
 Determine location of the payload in relationship to the
launch point and the ground with GPS
 Extract, process, and analyze data stored on the
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Science Background
Remote Sensing
 Acquisition of information about an object or
phenomenon without making physical contact
 Use of aerial sensor technologies to detect and classify
objects on Earth by means of propagated signals
 Photographic cameras, mechanical scanners, and
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Science Background
Active vs. Passive
Active
 Beam artificially produced energy to a target and
record the reflected component
Passive
 Detect only energy emanating naturally from an object
http://www.intechopen.com/books/biomass-and-remote-sensing-of-biomass/introduction-to-remote-sensing-of-biomass
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Science Background
Infrared
 Light with longer wavelengths than visible light
 Extending from the red edge of the visible spectrum
http://gers.uprm.edu/geol6225/pdfs/06_
thermal_rs.pdf
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Science Background
Spectral Signature
 The ratio of reflected energy to incident energy as a
function of wavelength
 Various materials of the earth’s surface have different
spectral reflectance characteristics
 The spectral reflectance is dependent on wavelength;
moreover, it has different values at different
wavelengths for a given terrain feature
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Science Background
Characteristics of Terrain
 Reflected energy from an object can be measured, and
a spectral signature can be formed
 By comparing the response pattern of different
features, distinctions between them can be made
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Science Background
Characteristics of Terrain
Water
 Longer wavelength in visible and near infrared radiation
is absorbed more by water than shorter visible
wavelengths
 Typically looks blue or blue-green due to stronger
reflectance at these shorter wavelengths, and darker if
viewed at red or near infrared wavelengths.
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Science Background
Characteristics of Terrain
Vegetation
 Chlorophyll strongly absorbs radiation in the red and
blue wavelengths but reflects green wavelengths
 The internal structure of healthy leaves act as excellent
diffuse reflectors of near-infrared wavelengths
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Science Background
Characteristics of Terrain
Soil
 They tend to have high reflectance in all bands
 Dependent on factors such as the color, constituents,
and moisture content
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Science Background
Spectral Signature
http://remote-sensing.net/concepts.html
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Science Background
Spatial Resolution
 The spatial resolution, also known as ground
resolution, is the ground area imaged for the
instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the sensing
device
 Spatial resolution may also be described as the ground
surface area that forms one pixel in the camera image
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Science Background
Angular Field of View
 The field-of-view (FOV) is the range of angles from
which the incident radiation can be collected by the
detector
 Spatial resolution of passive sensors depends primarily
on their Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV)
http://www.supercircuits.com/reso
urces/tools/lens-calculator
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Science Background
Instantaneous Field of View
 The smallest detail that you
can get an accurate
temperature measurement
upon at a set distance
 The signal recorded by a
detector element is
proportional to the total
IFOV.
http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~rese
arch/tutorial/image.htm#ifov
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larger area, but cannot provide great detai
shuttle sees of the Earth to what you can s
whole province or country in one glance, b
a city or town, you would be able to see in
Field
of aView
viewing
much smaller area than the astr
images and airphotos.
Science Background
Instantaneous
A. the angular cone of
visibility of the sensor
B. the area on the Earth's
surface which is "seen"
from a given altitude
C. The size of the area
viewed is determined by
multiplying the IFOV by
the distance from the
ground to the sensor
The d
spatia
the sm
Spatia
specia
prima
The IF
and d
"seen
time (
multip
the se
resolu
spatia
detected, its size generally has to be equa
smaller than this, it may not be detectable
resolution cell will be recorded. However, s
their reflectance dominates within a articul
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Science Background
Pixels
 A digital image comprises of a two dimensional array of
individual picture elements
 Each pixel represents an area on the Earth's surface.
1. Intensity Value
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Science Background
Pixels
Intensity Value
 The measured physical quantity such as the solar
radiance in a given wavelength band reflected from the
ground
 This value is normally the average value for the whole
ground area covered by the pixel
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Science Background
Pixels
 Denoted by its row and column coordinates in the twodimensional image.
 In order to be useful, the exact geographical location of
each pixel on the ground must be derivable from its row
and column
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Science Background
Pixels
http://www.intechopen.com/books/biomass-and-remote-sensing-ofbiomass/introduction-to-remote-sensing-of-biomass
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Science Background
Filters
 Filters are used to zone in on portion of the EM
Spectrum
 There are two types of filters
1. Lens filters
2. Image processing filters
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Science Background
Filters
Lens Filter
 Applied directly to the remote sensor to only capture
selected portions of the spectrum
Band-Pass
filter selecting
a specified
wavelength
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Science Background
Filter
Processing Filters
 Applied during post processing to zone in on specific
intensities
Band-Pass filter
selection of a
specified
intensity
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Science Background
Filter
Processing Filters
 Low-Pass – removes high data points
 High-Pass – removes low data points
 Band-Pass – keeps all data within a specified band
 Band-Reject – removes all data within a specified band
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 Determining the health of specific vegetation
 Identifying specific types of vegetation through the
analysation of their specified emittance
 Law Enforcement can locate illegal plant growth such
as the Cannabis plants
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Requirements
 The camera must cover near infrared
 The camera shall be at a 0° angle with respect to the
 The camera must be the lowest payload on the launch, to
avoid camera obstructions
 The camera shall provide a pixel and spatial resolution
falling within the suitable scope for long-range photography
 Camera must be capable of zooming at various rates during
different points of the flight to compensate for altitude
changes
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Requirements
 The remote sensing must be equipped with a proper
filter lens that records near infrared
 Pictures will be taken at the highest rate possible
before resolution becomes no good
 Adequate amount of storage on board to store photos
 The timestamp on the BalloonSat must match the
timestamp on the GPS locater
 A timestamp will be recorded on each photograph
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Requirements
 The payload shall remain fully functional during the
thermal, vacuum, and shock preflight tests
 The payload will have two holes 17 cm apart for the
LaACES interfacing
 The payload will have a mass of less than 500 grams
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Requirements
 A Pre-PDR shall be completed by January 15, 2013
 A PDR document shall be completed by February 5,
2013
 A Pre-CDR shall be completed by March 5, 2013
 A CDR document shall be completed March 26, 2013
 An FRR document shall be completed by April 30, 2013
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Principle of Operation
 An infrared camera will capture images of the
ground during the duration of flight
 Filters will be applied during flight and post
flight in order to analyze and determine each
topographic feature captured
 The BalloonSat will control the camera’s zoom
and capture rate
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System Design
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Mechanical Design
 Infrared camera positioned 0 degrees with
 Points directly at the ground
 The camera must be at the bottom of the
 Clear view of the ground
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Management
Part
Weight
Uncertainty
Camera
150g
+/-50
BalloonSat
70g
+/-5
Power Source
70g
+/-35
60g
+/-30
Total
380g
+/- 120
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Budget
Sensors
Current
Power
mA*(4h)
BalloonSat
60 mA
240 mAh
Camera
440 mA
1760 mAh
Total
500 mA
2000 mAh
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Project Management

All documents will follow version control as stated in team
contract

Project Manager coordinates functional groups

Team meetings at least 3 times a week
