Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn

Report
Developing Through
the Life Span
PowerPoint®
Presentation
by Jim Foley
© 2013 Worth
Publishers
Module 9: Developmental Issues,
Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
Topics we’ll be bringing to life
 Issues in Thinking about
Development
 Nature and Nurture
 Continuity and Stages
 Stability and Change
 Prenatal Development
 Conception  Zygote
 Embryo  Fetus
 Teratogen Risks
 Newborn Skills and Behaviors
Module 9: Developmental Issues, Prenatal
Development,
and the Newborn
Topics we’ll be bringing to life
 Issues in Thinking about Development
– Continuity and Stages
– Stability and Change
 Prenatal Development
– Conception  Zygote
– Embryo  Fetus
– Teratogen Risks
 Newborn Skills and Behaviors
nature
and
nurture
How do genes and experience
guide development over our
lifespan?
change
and
stability
Issues in
Developmental
Psychology
continuity
and stages
In what
ways do we
change as
we age, and
in what
ways do we
stay the
same?
Is development
a gradual
change or are
there some
leaps to a new
way of thinking
or behaving?
Nature, Nurture, and Differences
 Childhood involves a genetically-driven process of
maturation, AND a process of interacting with, and
being formed by, the world of objects and media,
parents and peers.
 When racial or ethnic or gender groups of people differ
from each other in traits or abilities, the differences
within groups tends to be greater than the difference
between groups. Why?
 The environment and culture affects all of us, but due to
our similar biological heritage, it affects us in much the
same way.
 Genetic variations within groups affect traits and
behavior more than the variations between groups.
Continuity vs. Stages, Nurture and Nature
Researchers who see
development as a
function of
experience tend to
see development
as continuous and
gradual.
Nurture is
continuous.
Researchers who
focus on biological
maturation see spurts
of growth and other
changes that make
one stage of
development very
different from
another.
Nature has stages.
Stages and Continuity
 Three different types of development--cognitive,
moral, and psychosocial--have been running in parallel.
 Are they really separate stages, or a continuous process
of development?
Change and Stability
 Are there some parts of who we are that remain stable
throughout development?
Our temperament? Our overall personality?
 Do some of our attributes change during development
(even while we maintain our sense of identity)?
Our abilities? Our interests? Our habits? Our traits?
Stability and Change
Are we essentially the same person over long
periods? Some answers from research:
 In general, temperament seems stable.
 Traits can vary, especially attitudes, coping
strategies, work habits, and styles of
socializing.
 Personality seems to stabilize with age.
Stability helps us form identity, while the
potential for change gives us control over our
lives.
Starting the Path to Personhood:
Prenatal Development
and the Newborn
Conception
Prenatal
Development
The Competent
Newborn
In the
beginning:
Sperm and egg unite to bring
genetic material together and
form one organism:
the zygote (the fertilized cell).
Conception
Prenatal
Development
The Zygote Stage: First 10 to 14 Days
 After the nuclei of the egg and
sperm fuse, the cell divides in 2, 4,
8, 16, 100…
 Milestone of the zygote stage: cells
begin to differentiate into
specialized locations and structures
Implantation: The Embyro, 2 to 8 weeks
 This stage begins with the
multicellular cluster that implants in
the uterine wall.
 Milestone of the implantation stage:
differentiated cells develop into
organs and bones
Embryo
The Fetus
At nine weeks, hands and face
have developed; the embryo is
now called a fetus (“offspring”).
Placenta
At 4 months, many more
features develop.
Milestone of the fetal stage:
by six months, the fetus
might be able to survive
outside the womb
Fetal Life: The Dangers
Dangers
• Teratogens (“monster
makers”) are substances
such as viruses and
chemicals that can damage
the developing embryo or
fetus.
• Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
(FAS) refers to cognitive,
behavioral, and body/brain
structure abnormalities
caused by exposure to
alcohol in the fetal stage.
Fetal life: Responding to Sounds
 Fetuses in the womb can
respond to sounds.
 Fetuses can learn to recognize
and adapt to sounds that they
previously heard only in the
womb.
 Fetuses can habituate to
annoying sounds, becoming
less agitated with repeated
exposure.
After the fetal
period,
the child is born!
The
Competent
Newborn
Inborn Skills
Reflexes are responses that are
inborn and do not have to be learned.
Newborns have reflexes to ensure
that they will be fed.
 The rooting reflex--when
something touches a newborn’s
cheek, the infant turns toward
that side with an open mouth.
 The sucking reflex can be
triggered by a fingertip.
 Crying when hungry is the
newborn talent of using just the
right sounds to motivate parents
to end the noise and feed the
baby.
More Inborn Abilities
 Newborns (one hour old!) will look twice as long at
the image on the left.
 What can we conclude from this behavior?

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