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LABORATORY NOTES LABORATORY #1 1. Lab Safety 2. The Scientific Method 3. The Metric System Biology 3 Labs 1. TAKE COPIES OR BUY THE BIO 3 LAB MANUAL FROM THE BOOK STORE 2. There will be a quiz every week starting the 3rd week of the semester. 20 multiple choice questions: • 10 from the previous lab already done • 10 from the lab that is going to be done that day. Therefore, you must read and study the lab that is due that week. 3. You should follow the “recipe” in your Biology 3 Lab Manual for all the experiments that we are going to do. Read and study the labs before coming into the lab. Session. I will give you only the main principles regarding that lab. 4. You have to hand in the lab report regarding the previous lab session every week. 5. Regarding Project Genesis, I will explain how to do it next week. LAB #1: FIRST PART: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. OBSERVATION: Does Compound X increase plant growth? 2. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing amounts of compound X correlate w/ increasing plant growth 3. EXPERIMENT: Design a study to test the hypothesis PEA PLANT COMPOUND X per Day(grams) 1 0 2 1 3 3 4 5 5 7 6 9 3. CONT. EXPERIMENT: Pea plant Compound X per day (gr) Height of plants (cm) 1 0 4.0 2 1 9.9 3 3 13.2 4 5 15.1 5 7 16.8 6 9 17.0 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: The condition that varies among the groups DEPENDENT VARIABLE: The measurements or outcomes STANDARIZED VARIABLES: Conditions that remain the same so influence in outcomes remains constant EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS: The subjects: the plants CONTROL GROUP: The plants that did not receive treatment REPETITION of the experiment is important to have more accurate results LAB #1: THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. CONCLUSION: Data will support or will not support the hypothesis: Increased amounts of compound X cause pea plants to grow taller. Pea plant Compound X per Height of plants day (gr) (cm) 1 0 4.0 2 1 9.9 3 3 13.2 4 5 15.1 5 7 16.8 6 9 17.0 5. DATA PRESENTATION : GRAPHS (Line graphs or bar graphs) Plant Height (cm) (Dependent variable) Pea Compou plant nd X per day (gr) Height of plants (cm) 1 0 4.0 2 1 9.9 3 3 13.2 4 5 15.1 5 7 16.8 6 9 17.0 20 18 16 15 14 12 10 8 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Compound X (gr) (Independent variable) 1. Use a line graph: When independent variable is continuous (infinite) 2. Use a bar graph: When independent variable is discontinuous ( finite or discrete) 1. Exercise 1A: Assessing hypotheses: Indicate if you think each hypothesis listed on your worksheet is good, and if not, suggest changes that would make it a good hypothesis. 2. Exercise 1B: Effect on distance on making baskets into a large beaker out of 10 chances at each distance: a. Distance 0 (Control): b. Distance 1m: c. Distance 2m: d. Distance 4m: • State your hypothesis, and identify the independent and dependent variables. • Graph data (individually) • Conclusions and answer questions in the worksheet 3. Exercise 1C: Graphing practice LAB #1: PART 2 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. The English System: Length: 1 mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 63,360 inches Volume: 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 128 ounces = 256 tablespoons Mass: 1 ton = 2,000 pounds = 32,000 ounces Temperature : Fahrenheit - Water freezes at 32 ºF and boils at 212 ºF The metric system is easier and more practical to use. 2. The Metric System: • Length: Meter • Volume: Liter • Mass: Gram • Temperature: Degree Celsius Mega…………106 = 1000000 Kilo………..... 103 = 1000 Basic Unit……100 = 1 deci…………..1/10= 10 -1 = 0.1 centi………….1/100= 10 -2 = 0.01 milli…………..1/1000=10-3 = 0.001 micro(µ-)….1/1000000=10-6=0.000001 nano(n-)…….10-9 = 0.000000001 pico(p-)………10-12 = 0.000000000001 2. The Metric System: • Length: Meter • Volume: Liter • Mass: Gram • Temperature: Degree Celsius Mega…………106 = 1000000 Kilo………..... 103 = 1000 Basic Unit……100 = 1 deci…………..1/10= 10 -1 = 0.1 Zeros to the right centi………….1/100= 10 -2 = 0.01 Zeros to the left milli…………..1/1000=10-3 = 0.001 micro(µ-)….1/1000000=10-6=0.000001 nano(n-)…….10-9 = 0.000000001 pico(p-)………10-12 = 0.000000000001 643 m = _____ km 2.4 kg = _____ mg LAB #1 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. Exercise 2A: a. With a meter, measure its width and length of the class to the nearest meter b. Measure in centimeters the dimensions of a piece of paper of your notebook c. Measure yourself in centimeters d. With a plastic ruler measure the diameter of a hole of your notebook to the nearest millimeter e. Notes: Length Volume • 1 mile= 1.6 Km 1 quart= 0.94 Lts • 1 inch= 2.54 cm Mass • 1 foot= 30.48 cm 1Lb= 0.45 Kg LAB #1 1. Exercise 2B: Measuring Mass: a. Place an empty 50 ml graduated cylinder on the balance and determine its mass in grams. b. Next, fill the graduated cylinder with 50 ml of water and measure the mass of both the cylinder and the water. From this value subtract the mass of the cylinder to get the mass of the water. c. Next, take a large paper clip and place it on the balance and determine its mass in grams. LAB #1 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. Exercise 2C: Measuring volume a. Graduated cylinders are used to measure accurately volumes while beakers are used to hold liquids. b. Fill one 50ml cylinder w/. Water, and add it to a 1Lt beaker. Observe: 50 ml = 1/20 Lt c. Measure the fluid in flask A to the nearest 0.1ml. 1. Exercise 2C: Measuring volume d. Using the roller on the pipette pump, gradually suck up some water until the meniscus reaches the 0 ml mark. Measure 10 ml of the water into the sink by rolling the roller in the opposite direction. e. Next, measure the amount of fluid in the test tube labeled B to the nearest 0.1 ml using the 10 ml pipette. LAB #1 1. Exercise 2D: Measuring volumes less than 1ml : Using a micropipettor that measures on a 1µl level. 2. Exercise 2D: Practice measuring volumes using the micropipettes P20 and P200 3. Read in the lab manual how to do this exercise. When you are ready to do it CALL ME: I HAVE TO CHECK AND MAKE SURE YOU HAVE LEARNED HOW TO USE A MICROPIPETTOR! 4. Using the P200, transfer 100 µl of the blue liquid to the tube labeled “100” by following the instructions in the lab manual 5. Using the P20, transfer 10µl of blue liquid to the tube labeled “10”. 6. Using the P20, transfer 1µl of blue liquid to the tube labeled “1”. P20: 0.5 to 20.0 µl P200: 20 to 200 µl P1000: 200 to 1000 µl LAB #1 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. Exercise 2D: Measuring Temperature: Use a thermometer to measure the following in degrees Celsius: a. the ambient temperature of the lab b. a bucket of ice water c. a beaker of boiling water 2. Convert the temperatures on your worksheet from oC to oF : oC = 5/9 x (oF - 32) Convert from oF to oC with the following formulas: oF = (9/5 x oC) + 32 LAB #1 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. Exercise 2E : a. Converting decimal notation to exponential notation 0.00105 = 1.05 x 10-3 1,050 = 1.05 x 103 b. Complete the conversions of simple numbers to exponential numbers on your worksheet. LAB #1 THE METRIC SYSTEM 1. Exercise 2F : a. Converting exponential notation to decimal notation 1.05 x 10-3 = 0.00105 1.05 x 103 = 1,050 b. Complete the conversions of exponential numbers to simple numbers on your worksheet.