Evaluating for Comprehensive Cancer Control Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change Kellee Thorburn McCrory, MPH The University of Iowa National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice • What is PSE? Why must we have so many acronyms? • Calculating reach • How do you evaluate a PSE program or intervention? • Challenges of evaluating PSE What is PSE? • Policies: Policy interventions may be a law, ordinance, resolution, mandate, regulation, or rule (both formal and informal) Example: Organizational policies that provide time off during work hours for physical activity. • Systems: Systems interventions are changes that impact all elements of an organization, institution, or system. Types of systems include: school districts, transportation, parks and recreation, health care clinics, etc. • Environmental: Environmental interventions involve physical or material changes to the economic, social, or physical environment. Example: Incorporating sidewalks, paths, and recreation areas into community design. ( Healthy South Carolina, 2012) Increasing Population Impact Counseling and Education Increasing Individual Effort Needed Clinical Interventions Long-lasting Protective Factors Changing the Context to Make Individuals’ Default Decisions Healthy Socioeconomic Factors A Framework for Public Health Action: The Health Impact Pyramid Health Promotion VS. PSE Strategies • Health promotion program • Change one person at a time • PSE strategies • Change the environment in a way that makes healthy behavior easier Health Promotion Program (One) PSE Strategies (Many) Education regarding tooth brushing Add fluoride to water system Smoking cessation education No-smoking policies for public places Healthy nutrition classes Adding calorie info to menus (Brega, 2012) Program vs. Policy Change Program Characteristics PSE Change Characteristics One-time Ongoing Often results in short-term behavior Often produces behavior changes over time Individual level Policy level Not part of an ongoing plan Part of an ongoing plan Short-term in duration Long-term in duration Not sustainable Sustainable What have been some PSE changes in Iowa? Importance of Evaluation • Assessing the impact of an intervention (PSE) • Has many benefits • Are you meeting your goals? • Have the effect you expected? • Information to share with community and funders (Brega, 2012) Baseline and Target Measures Baseline data: collected prior to intervention; essential to monitor and track change. The purpose is to: • Compare what happens before and after intervention • Assess the effect of the program • Provide a foundation for showing performance improvement Target data: provides info on level of change desired over a given time period that represents success. It is not a guess. It involves knowing where you are, what you are trying to achieve and what is realistic to get there. Most important criteria: 1) data availability 2) use of an informed and systematic approach Where can I find this data? Secondary data • National, state, local surveys, surveillance systems and registries • Special studies by national orgs or partners • University or academic studies • Mass media • CDC data • Project records Primary data • If secondary is not available, you will need to collect new data USE SECONDARY DATA! IT IS AVAILABLE AND USUALLY RELIABLE Reach: is the absolute number, percentage, and proportion of settings and people affected by the intervention. How does this help evaluation? Evaluators want to know the so what and how many of an intervention. Reach can answer the how many. How to calculate reach Reach calculation is a two-step process: 1) Assessing adoption 2) Determining those served 1. Calculate the # of targeted systems/settings that adopt intervention 2. Calculate the # of or % of people within those settings that are served by the intervention Here are some examples Number of settings that adopt 40 FQHCs participating = 50% of FQHCs adopted 80 FQHCs targeted (total # in state) Number of people served by the intervention 4,000 patients participating 10,000 patients targeted* = 40% of patients served *10,000 patients who are served by 40 FQHCs; of those 10,000, 4,000 were reached by the intervention. Number of settings that adopt 3 Farmers markets established 4 farmers markets planned = 75% of FMs established Number of people served by FM 3,000 people shop at FM = 50% shopped FM 6,000 people in surrounding census blocks *6,000 shoppers who are served by 3 FMs; of those 6,000, 3,000 were reached by the intervention. Impact of a PSE Strategy Intervention Implement a statewide tobacco tax increase PSE Change Higher cost for tobacco products Behavior Change •Reduction in tobacco use •Reduction in secondhand smoke Improved Health Outcomes Distinctions from Health Promotion Model • Addition of PSE change stage • Timeline of intervention activities and effect Reduction of tobacco related morbidity and mortality Implications for Evaluation Intervention PSE Changes Process Evaluation Behavior Change Improved Health Outcomes Outcome Evaluation Short-term Intermediate Long-term (Brega, 2012) Intervention Plan Template GOAL: By September 30, 2014, increase the number of school districts with healthy food procurement policies from 0 to 10. Direction of change Unit of measure ment What will be Baseline measured? Increase School district # of districts with healthy food procurement policies 0 Target Time frame Data source 10 9/29/13 thru 9/30/14 School Board/School procurement policy • Identify exactly what you want to measure • Think about data sources from the beginning (Brega, 2012) Evaluation Example GOAL: By September 30, 2014, increase the number of schools that have healthy food procurement policies from 0 to 10. Activity 1: Form an advisory board to develop model food procurement standards. Activity 2:Work with 20 school districts to promote adoption of standards. Process Measures • Advisory board formed • •Board meets regularly • •Standards developed • # meetings held with school district leadership • # of school board meetings when policy was discussed • Policy approved Challenges of Evaluating PSE Change • • • • • • Have we actually implemented a PSE project? Can we access data? Is the data right? What is the source? Was reach calculated correctly? PSE can take time – what can we learn as change is happening? Let’s try it! • Move into groups of five • Decide what you would like to see change at a policy, system, or environmental level • Use the intervention diagram to plot it out • Complete how you would evaluate it THINK BIG! BE A DREAMER!