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In order to perform to their potential, long jumpers must use their muscles and
bones efficiently.
Figure 1 shows a long jumper during the take-off phase of his jump.
Figure 1:
Using Figure 1, complete Table 1 to identify:
(i) the joint actions involved at the hip and ankle of the take-off leg as the
performer leaves the board, (3 marks)
(ii) the names of the main agonists working at the knee and ankle. (3 marks)
Joint
Hip
Knee
Ankle
(i)
Joint action
Hyperextension
Extension
Plantar flexion
(i)
Main agonist
Gluteals
Quadriceps
Gastrocnemius
Name, sketch and label the lever system operating at the ankle
of the take-off foot. (3 marks)
* Second class lever. (FRE)
Resistance
Fulcrum
Effort
Figure 2 shows how a gymnast pushes up from a headstand to a
handstand.
Figure 2.
Position A
Position B
a) Name the main ‘agonist’ at the elbow joint in the movement from
position A to position B. (1 mark)
b) Name the ‘type of muscle contraction’ taking place while the gymnast
is stationary at position A and through the movement phase to position B.
(2 marks)
a)
* Triceps
b)
* Isometric contractions during position A.
* Isotonic concentric contraction of triceps to move into position B.
Name, sketch and label the lever system that is operating at the
elbow during the movement from A to B (from previous
question). (3 marks)
* First class lever. (FRE)
Fulcrum
Resistance
Effort
Figure 3 shows a games player running.
Figure 3:
The player’s left leg is driving him forward. For the movement occurring at
the knee joint of the drive leg, name:
a) the ‘axis’ about which the movement is taking place. (1 mark)
b) the main ‘agonist’ causing the movement. (1 mark)
c) the ‘joint action’ taking place. (1 mark)
a)
* Transverse axis (and sagittal plane).
b)
* Quadriceps.
c)
* Extension
In some games, players kick a ball to keep possession and/or to
gain territory.
Figure 4 shows a footballer kicking a ball.
A
B
(a)What are the names of the articulating bones of the knee joint?
(2 marks)
(b)What joint action takes place at the knee of the kicking leg in
the movement from position A to position B? (1 mark)
(c) What is the name of the main agonist that causes this action in
Figure 4? (1 mark)
a)
* Femur and tibia.
b)
* Extension.
c)
* Quadriceps
Skilled performance is made possible through the effective use of
lever systems.
a) Sketch and label a third class lever system. (3 marks)
b) In your diagram, draw and label the effort arm and the
resistance arm. (2 marks)
c) What are the advantages and disadvantages of third class
levers over the other types of lever systems? (2 marks)
* Third class lever. (FRE)
Effort arm
Fulcrum
Resistance
Effort
Resistance arm
c)
* Third class lever has a shorter effort arm and a longer resistance
arm.
* This results in a mechanical disadvantage in terms of the
amount of weight that can be lifted due to the short effort arm.
* However, there is the mechanical advantage of a large range of
movement and greater speed of movement due to long
resistance arm.
The diagram shows a tennis player performing a ground stroke.
A
B
C
D
Complete the table below to explain the movement occuring in
the right arm from position B to D. (6 marks)
Joint Action
Main agonist
Plane and Axis
Shoulder
Horizontal flexion
Anterior deltoids and
pectorals
Transverse plane /
longitudinal axis
Elbow
Extension to flexion
Triceps then biceps
Sagittal plane /
transverse axis
The diagram shows a weight trainer performing a squat exercise.
Use the diagram to fill in the table below.
(12 marks)
Downward Phase
Joint
Joint
Action
Main
Agonist
Flexion
Gluteals
Upward Phase
Type of
Joint
contraction Action
Main
Agonist
Type of
contraction
Eccentric
Gluteals
Concentric
Quadriceps
Concentric
Hip
Knee
Flexion
Quadriceps
Eccentric
Extension
Extension
The diagram shows a rugby player throwing the ball for a line
out. Complete the table below to identify the movements taking
place during the withdrawal phase and throwing phase of the
skill. (4 marks)
Withdrawal Phase
Throwing Phase
Withdrawal Phase
Joint
Elbow
Joint Action
Flexion
Main Agonist
Biceps
Throwing Phase
Joint Action
Extension
Main Agonist
Triceps

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