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 The evolution of foreign countries and their
desire to impart their philosophical will upon
North America has a long history.
 Prior to Columbus, there is documented proof
that several European countries has explored
North America and had attempted to extract
the natural resources.
 The voyages of Columbus however becomes
the watershed event when the two way
exchange of resources, people and disease
change the course of history.
 As England establishes its control along the
east coast, other countries such as Spain,
France and Portugal also attempt to lay claim
to the land.
 Finally, the European descendants who
established permanent communities in North
America, which became known as the United
States also found itself having to defend their
boarders.
Introduction
The United States Foreign Policy
 As the first President of the United States, George
Washington was well aware that this newly established
country could not afford to get involved in the European
conflict.
 It was Washington’s policy to stay neutral and not to side
with either England or the two main international powers at
that time.
 Washington knew, the US did not have the military might to
fight a war or the financial means to get involved.
 When Adams became President, he also had to make
some decisions.
 There was a great deal of political pressure from the
Federalists to support England to help the trade business.
Likewise the Democratic Republicans felt obligated to
support France fro their past support.
 Adams finally had to act when it became obvious that
France was attacking US ships, which led to the XYZ
affair.
Jeffersonian Foreign Policy
 John Adams did not win the White House for a second term.
 Thomas Jefferson narrowly beat out Aaron Burr in an
election which saw the Democratic Republicans take over
the country.
 The United Sates was now going to take a different direction
under Jefferson.
 Jefferson’s fiscal program was intended to avoid
international conflict so the country could work on lowering
the national debt.
 The United States had just purchased the Louisiana Territory from France and set
out to explore the newly acquired lands.
 In addition, the US had gained control over the port of New Orleans and the trade
business up and down the Mississippi River was now monitored by the US.
 France was no longer a threat in the continental United States.
 However, England was still agitated after having lost the Revolutionary War some 25
years previous and made life miserable for the United States merchants.
Major Events that Led to the War
 While Jefferson focused on established on domestic affairs, the
US shipping merchants continued to harassed England.
 Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe.
 England confiscated cargo from licensed ships and
continued the practice of impressment of American sailors.
 Although many British sailors had become US citizens by
deserting their British ships and joining American crews.
 British Navy would often kidnapped these sailors off American
ships and force them to rejoin the British Navy.
 Jefferson’s attempt with economic diplomacy also
failed miserably.
 The Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with
Europe by placing a ban on trade with other
countries.
 This had a devastating impact in the northern port
cities which depended heavily on merchant trade.
Madison takes over as President
 After Jefferson served two terms, it was James
Madison’s who was elected the fourth President.
 Madison like Jefferson was also a Democratic
Republican. He was also Jefferson’s Secretary of
State and had been one of the main contributors to the
writing of the Constitution.
 In March 1809, Congress replaced the Embargo Act of
1807 with another unenforceable Act in March 1809.
 This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping
except for those bound for British or French ports.
 The intent was to damage the economies of the United
Kingdom and France.
 Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly
ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of
1812.
 In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the
United States due to a lack of markets for its goods.
Why Did Madison Want War?

What were some of the benefits of going to war with
Britain?

To reestablish and protect the US trade business.

To build up this idea of Nationalism.

To stop the impressment of sailors.

CANADA!!!

What were some drawbacks to going to war?

Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war.

Military was small and they did not like to fight outside of
their state borders.

The Navy was also small with only 22 ships.

Britain was a great Superpower.

A loss would risk losing the territory that was gained in the
Louisiana Purchase.
Madison Declares War?

On June of 1812 Madison asked Congress for
declaration of war.

The vote was split along regional lines.

The war started with invasion of Canada.

Right from the start Madison and the US leaders
thought that the Canadians would welcome the
Americans and would quickly join the US to expel
Britain from North America.

However, this did not happen. The US lost three
battles inside of Canada.

Ultimately, Admiral Perry defeated the British on
Lake Erie .

Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard which
prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war
more unpopular in the Northeast.
The Burning of Washington DC?
 In August 1814, British forces sailed into Chesapeake
Bay and ransack Washington D.C.
 They burn the White House and the Capitol Building.
 Madison and members of Congress barely escape.
 Dolly Madison escapes with the Portrait of Washington.

However, unlike D.C., Baltimore was ready for the
British.

The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the
British.

After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13,
1814 the British abandon the attack.

Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and
penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem.
The Conclusion of the War?
 The Treaty of Ghent was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812
with the War ending in a stalemate.
 The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.
 The Battle of New Orleans was fought after
the Treaty of Ghent was signed (but not
ratified).
 Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside
US troops which made Andrew Jackson a
national hero and household name.
The Outcome of the War?
 If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was
it important?
 It gave the United States a National Identity.
 The United States was able to hold it’s own
against the British.
 The fight with England was over and the US was finally being
recognized as a viable nation in the eyes of the international
community.
 It also reinforced and encouraged the the westward expansion.
 It started an era of positive relations and trade with England.
 Created a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western Frontiersmen.
Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous
fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly
streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
The Star Spangled Banner
Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued
land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a
nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

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