Ch. 7 & 8 1) The chief of all the ancient Greek Gods was Zeus. 2) Unlike citizens of Greece, People in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt had no rights and no vice in government. 3) The first Greek mathematician to establish the principles of geometry was Pythagoras. 4) Persian religion based on one god – Zoroastrianism 5) Ephors – high- ranking government officials 6) Government by the people – democracy 7) Control by a small group – oligarchy 8) Enslaved people – helots 9) Persian province - satrapy 10) Narrow channel of water – strait 11) Absolute ruler – tyrant 12) Encouraged women to participate in government - Aspasia 13) Provided Sparta with gold to build ships – Persians 14) Thinkers who reflected on the meaning of life – philosophers 15) The “first citizens” of Athens who encouraged the arts and learning – Pericles 16) The Greeks were able to defeat the Persian fleet at the Strait of Salamis in part because their ships were smaller and faster. 17) Who told King Ptolemy that if he wanted to truly understand plane geometry, he would have to study hard? Euclid 18) In the Iliad, what was the result of Achilles’s anger against the Achaeans? Countless ills and death 19) The Mycenaean's came to Greece from Central Asia. 20) After their defeat at the Strait of Salamis, Persian foot soldiers set fire to the city of Athens. 21) After the Persian Wars ended, Athens became the economic and cultural center of Greece. 22) This author wrote in The Republic that an ideal nation would have a just and fair government lead by philosopherkings. Plato 23) Who, according to Homer, were angry with each other? Achilles and the son of Atreus 24) Whose armies conquered the land as far east as modern Pakistan? Alexander the Great ) The Hellenistic Era produced a great body of achievements in science, math, art, architecture, literature, and philosophy. 25 26) What did Darius expect Alexander to do? Stage a night attack 27) Xerxes was king of Persia. 28) The Minoans made their living as traders. 29) Persia as located in what would be considered present day Iran. 30) What help did Sparta receive from Persia in exchange fro some Greek territory? Persia gave Sparta gold so they could build their own navy. 31) What did Plato feel for Socrates? Deep admiration 32) The ancient Olympic Games, which occur every four years in Greece, were held in honor of Zeus. 33) The library here attracted scholars from all over the world. Alexander 34) Since Spartan men lived away from home, Spartan women could own property and travel. 35) Mycenaean's could pay their taxes in wheat, livestock, or honey. 36) What did Alexander’s generals want him to do? Stage a night attack 37) Who wrote the Odyssey? Homer 38) Modern examples of drama include movies and plays. 39) Why did Sparta’s leaders favor a military society? They thought it created obedient and loyal citizens. 40) Who was the god of the Greek underworld? Hades 41) The reason the Delian League failed was that Athens had become so powerful that it took control over it. 42) Slavery in Athens was very common. 43) Artemis is the goddess of the hunt and wild animals. 44) If the Greeks do not want to fight Phillip in his kingdom, where will they fight? At home in Greece. 45) Who was the goddess of wisdom and crafts and was so popular that she had a major city-state named in her honor? Athena 46) What did Socrates mean by “my departure hence”? His death 47) Why were colonies first established by the Greeks around 700 B.C.? They could not grow enough food to feed their increasing population. 48) Because of the conquests made by Cyrus, the Persians already controlled Anatolia before their wars with Greece.