### Group 3-BESARIO,DIAZ,GO,URIARTE

```Observing the
Operculum Movement
of Goldfish Under
Different Environments
Introduction


Water pollution is almost widespread all
throughout the world and it affects a lot of
living things, health-wise and environmentwise.
The operculum is a hard, bony flap covering
and protecting the gills. For fishes, the
operculum is vital in obtaining oxygen. It’s
movement and the movement of the mouth
floor are coordinated to produce a stream
of water, in through the mouth, over the gills,
and out of the operculum.
If the operculum is damaged, the fish will
have difficulty breathing .
 This experiment aims to see what
happens to the movement of the fishes’
operculum when immersed in a
different/polluted environment.

Objective/Problem
What
will the happen to
the fishes’ operculum if it is
immersed in a
different/polluted
environment?
Hypothesis

Null:
◦ - There is no significant effect in the fishes’
operculum movement if immersed in a
polluted environment.
Alternative:
- There is a significant effect in the fishes’
operculum movement if immersed in a
polluted environment.
Materials
2 goldfish
 3 liter set
 2 thermometers
 1 stirring rod
 700 ml of tap water
 5 g of detergent

Methods

After filling the liter sets with 700 ml of
tap water, we took the temperature of
the two liter sets.
Liter Set
Temperature
1
27 degrees celcius
2
27 degrees celcius

The second liter set had 5 g of detergent
mixed in and had it’s temperature taken
again after 2 minutes.
Liter Set
Temperature
1
27 degrees celcius
2
27 degrees celcius
 The
two goldfish have been
placed in the liter sets without
detergent and the liter set
with detergent. Their
operculum movement have
been counted and observed
for 2 minutes and the results
have been recorded.
Results

The operculum movement of the goldfish
in the water with detergent was
significantly greater than the one in the
water without detergent.
Liter Set
Operculum Movement
1
55 flaps per minute
2
68 flaps per minute

After 2 minutes, the fish in the liter set
with detergent is removed and placed in
the third liter set with clean tap water
and was observed for the rest of the day.
The following observations are as follows.
After 2 minutes, gills had started to protrude and bleed.
The fish had started to jump and thrash around.
3 minutes later, it stopped thrashing.
1 minute later, blood is excreted through the operculum.
The fish has recovered but now moves languidly.
At 9:20 AM, the fish is dead.
Discussion
Due to the fact that the water enters the
fish through the operculum, the water
with the detergent entered the same way
and may have possibly damaged the other
breathing organs of the fish.
 This has been supported by the fact that
the second fish’s operculum has seen to
be bleeding after it’s transfer to the clean
water to enable it to recover.

The detergent may have damaged the
fish’s gill filaments to have caused it to
protrude from under the fish’s operculum.
 The damage to these filaments made it
more difficult for the water that entered
the fish to be properly expelled and it
ended up circulating to and fro the fish’s
breathing organs which may have lead to
it’s death.


This goes to show that if ever detergents
or any other form of contaminants ever
goes in the water, it may affect other
fishes in the same way it affected the
goldfish. And since detergents are an
example of organic water pollutants, this
may just happen in the near future.
Conclusion
 Therefore, the
group has
concluded that there is a
significant effect in the fishes’
operculum movement if
immersed in a polluted
environment.
References
http://www.earthlife.net/fish/gills.html
 http://www.cormp.org/documents/Fish%2
0metabolism.doc
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operculum_(f
ish)
 http://www.biology-resources.com/fish01.html
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollut
ion

Authors:
Group Three
BESARIO, Vince
DIAZ, Cherie Loriel
GO, Amiel Bruisse
URIARTE, Dua Aeka
```