Arbeitszufriedenheit Ein zentrales, aber unterschätztes Konzept in

Report
Job Satisfaction
A central but underestimated
concept in the psychology of work
Norbert K. Semmer
Universität Bern
Giessen, January 8. 2002
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Job Satisfaction:
A concept not highly estimated
Satisfaction:
„... The most superficial and ambiguous
of all feelings....“
Frese (1990)
Frese, M. (1990). Arbeit- und Emotion – Ein
Essay. In F. Frei & I. Udris (Hrsg.), Das Bild
der Arbeit (S. 285-301). Bern: Huber
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Job Satisfaction:
A concept not highly estimated
Job Satisfaction as expression of
„unhappiness without any aspirations“
Neuberger, 1980
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Topics
1. Arguments against the concept of job
satisfaction
2. Arguments against the objections
3. Job Satisfaction as result of an overall
evaluation
4. Conceptionel and empirical differentiations
5. Conclusion
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Objections
1. High rates of satisfaction are not credible
2. Associations with performance are weak
3. Depends more on personality than on
working conditions
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Objection 1:
Unrealistically high rates of satisfaction
• Typically, at least 75% are „satisfied“
(= 4 or 5 on a five-point Likert scale)
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Example:
Job satisfaction of sales women


74%
20%
University of Bern
Stalder, B. (1989). Verkäuferinnen: Arbeitssituation und Gesundheit. (Saleswomen: Work situation and
health). Upublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Psychology, Universität Bern, Switzerland.

6%
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
High rates of satisfaction:
Explanations offered
• People deceive the researchers
(e.g., because of fear of a lack of anonymity)
• People deceive themselves
(reduction of cognitive dissonance)
• It‘s all a meaningless ritual – answers are given
in accordance with social conventions
(„How are you? – fine, thanks...“)
• People have reduced their aspirations
(Resignation)
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
High rates are not credible:
Data
Questions like:
„Would you choose the same occupation again? “
or
„Would you recommend this profession to your son
or daughter?“
Yield noticably lower values (about 45% yes)
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Objection 2:
Negligible association with performance
Meta-Analyse
by Iaffaldano & Muchinsky (1985):
Corrected mean correlation:
r = .17
Iaffaldano, M.T., & Muchinsky, P.M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 251-273.
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Objection 3
Characteristic of the person?
• Staw, Bell & Clausen (1986): Affective Disposition in adolescenced and job satisfaction 50
years later: r = .34.
• Staw & Ross (1985): Stability between 1966
and 1971 between r = .37 and .48.
• Arvey et al. (1989): 30% of the variance is
genetically determined (twin studies).
Staw, B. M., Bell, N. E., & Clausen, J. A. (1986). The dispositional approach to job attitudes: A lifetime longitudinal test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31,
56-77.
Staw, B. M., & Ross, J. (1985). Stability in the midst of change: A dispositional approach to job attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 469-480. Arvey, R.
D., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M. (1989). Job satisfaction: environmental and genetic components. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 187192.
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Arguments regarding objection 1:
High rates not credible?
• Research on general well-being yields
comparably high rates (Staudinger, 2000).
 Argument of anonymity not convincing
• Older people often report better working
conditions (Spector, 1997).
 not only resignation!
• Why should on deceive oneself and others
regarding questions on satisfaction but not
regarding questions about recommendations??
Staudinger, U.M. (2000). Viele Gründe sprechen dagegen, und trotzdem geht es vielen Menschen gut: Das
Paradox des subjektiven Wohlbefindens. Psychologische Rundschau, 51 185-197.
Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, cause, and consequences. London: Sage.
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Arguments concerning objection 2:
Association with performance negligible?
Iaffaldano & Muchinsky (1985):
Corrected correlation over all studies:
r = .17
But:
Studies using well established instruments
concerning overall satisfaction (e.g, DI / MSQ):
r = .29
Petty et al. (1984): .31
Judge et al. (2001): .30
University of Bern
Iaffaldano, M.T., & Muchinsky, P.M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 251-273.
Petty, M.M., McGee, G.W., & Cavender, J.W. (1984). A meta-analysis of the relationships between individual job satisfaction and
individual performance. Academy of Management Review, 9, 712-721.
Judge, T.A., Thoresen, C.J., Bono, J.E., & Patton, G.K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and
quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376-407
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Arguments concerning objection 3:
Reflecting only disposition?
• Elfering, Semmer & Kälin, 2000:
Stability of job satisfaction over one year: .32
For „Stayers“: .41
For „Leavers“: .29
Controlling for personality characteristics: Hardly any
change in stability (stayers: .43; leavers: .23)
Stabilities for personality characteristics noticibly
higher: r = .60 (Agreeableness) to .79 (Extraversion)
• Dormann & Zapf (2000): Partialing out working
conditions reduces stability of job satisfaction to zero.
Elfering, A., Semmer, N. & Kälin, W (2000). Stability and change in job satisfaction at the transition from vocational training into „real work“.
Swiss Journal of Psychology, 59, 256-271.
Dormann, C. & Zapf, D. (2001). Job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of stabilities. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 483-504.
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Conceptual issues: Definitions
• Job satisfaction as a „pleasurable or
positive emotional state resulting from
the appraisal of one‘s job or job
experiences“ (Locke, 1976)
versus
• Job satisfaction as Attitude
(involving the weighting of pro‘s and con‘s)
e.g. Spector (1997)
University of Bern
Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial
and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297-1350). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally (p. 1300).
Spector, P.E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, cause, and consequences. London: Sage.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Job Satisfaction and turnover within one year
(voluntary quitting in per cent)
(Computer specialists - Baillod & Semmer, 1994)
60
r = .37
47.8
Freiwillige Kündigung (%)
50
40
30
25.9
20
13.7
10
0
6.5
n = 153
n = 139
n = 143
n = 134
"++"
"+"
"-"
"--"
General Job Satisfaction (Quartiles)
University of Bern
Baillod, J. & Semmer, N.
(1994). Fluktuation und Berufsverläufe bei Computerfachleuten (Turonver and
professional careers among
computer specialists).
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und
Organisationspsychologie, 38,
152-163.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Job Satisfaction and Turnover
(Computer Specialists)
stay-leave
(n=272)
(n=40)
4.5
4.5
4
4
3.5
3.5
3
3
2.5
2.5
t1
t2
t3
t1
t2
leave-leave
leave-stay
(n=40)
(n=73)
4.5
4.5
4
4
3.5
3.5
3
3
2.5
2.5
t1
University of Bern
stay-stay
t2
t3
t1
Semmer, N. & Schallberger, U. (1996). Selection, Socialization, and mutual adaptation: Resolving discrepancies
between people and their work. "Applied Psychology": An International Review,45, 263-288.
t2
t3
t3
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Turnover and the Development of Job
Satisfaction among Computer Specialists
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
mehr als 1 Jahr
vor than weniger
als 1 Jahr vor
more
a less
yearthan
more Wechsel
than a year
a year
Wechsel
before
the
change
before the change
before the change
weniger als 1 Jahr nach
less than
a year
Wechsel
after the change
mehr als 1 Jahr nach
moreWechsel
than a year
after the change
Unternehmenswechsel
University of Bern
Stadler, R. (1994). Berufliche Veränderungen bei Computerfachleuten (Career changes among
computer specialists). Unpublished Master‘s Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Fig. 3
General Job Satisfaction and Turnover
.82
.71
.74
.84
.72
.89
.33
GJS 1
GJS 2
.41
ζ
.30
-.39
.10
.70
GJS 3
.43
ζ
.35
-.32
.36
.15
.67
TURN 12
.39
.76
TURN 23
.13
.34
ζ
.22
ζ
.24
.53
COM 1
.81 .88
.85
.71
COM 2
.60
.79
.84 .90 .90
COM 3
.84 .88 .90
Chi2 = 195.36, df = 112, p =.00, rmr = .03, gfi = .94, agfi = .92, aic = 277.36
University of Bern
Semmer, N.K:, Grob, A. Elfering, A. & Baillod, J. (2001). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors and consePsychology of Work and Organizations
quences of turnover: A three-wave investigation Unpublished manuscript, University of Bern, Dept. of Psychology, Bern, Switzerland
N. K. Semmer
Predicting voluntary turnover for different
motivations to quit
Push Motivation
Pull Motivation
.46/.54
.32/.48
GJS
.50/.55
-.53/-.46
GJS
GJS+1
.54/.43
ζ
.30/.29
0.0
.72/.76
TURN
.51/.48
University of Bern
.71/.77
.80/.76
.24/.40
ζ
.00/.02
.49/.43
COM+1
.71/.76
TURN
ζ
.13/.35
COM
ζ
0.0
.28/.21
.70/.73
GJS+1
.61/.65
COM
Semmer, N.K:, Grob, A. Elfering, A. & Baillod, J. (2001). Job satisfaction and organizational
commitment as predictors and consequences of turnover: A three-wave investigation
Unpublished manuscript, University of Bern, Dept. of Psychology, Bern, Switzerland
.64/.78
.47/.76
COM+1
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Changes in Job Satisfaction
Fig. 5
General Job Satisfaction
5.0
4.5
Leavers (Pull)
Stayers
4.0
3.5
3.0
Leavers (Others)
2.5
2.0
Time 1
University of Bern
Leavers (Push)
Time 2
Semmer, N.K:, Grob, A. Elfering, A. & Baillod, J. (2001). Job satisfaction and organizational
commitment as predictors and consequences of turnover: A three-wave investigation
Unpublished manuscript, University of Bern, Dept. of Psychology, Bern, Switzerland
Time 3
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Forms of Job Satisfaction
(Bruggemann, 1974)
COMPARISON: perceived reality - personal goals
Stabilising
SATISFACTION
Raising of
Standards
Keeping of
Standards
Diffuse
DISSATISFACTION
Lowering of
Standards
Keeping of
Standards
Resignative
Job
Satisfaction
Progressive
Job
Satisfaction
University of Bern
Stabilized
Job
Satisfaction
Distortion of
Reality
No ProblemSolving
Attempts
ProblemSolving
Attempts
Pseudo –
Job
Satisfaction
Fixated
Job
Dissatisfaction
Constructive
Job
Dissatisfaction
After Bruggemann, A. (1974). Zur Unterscheidung verschiedener Formen von "Arbeitszufriedenheit"
(Distinguishing different forms of job satisfaction). Arbeit und Leistung, 28, 281-284.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Resigned attitude towards work
(after Oegerli, 1984)
• My work is not ideal but after all, it could
be worse
• Quitting my job would imply even more
disadvantages; so I stay in spite of all
• It is best to swallow one‘s anger when
bothered by something at work
• As an employee one really cannot expect
a lot
University of Bern
Oegerli, K. (1984). Arbeitszufriedenheit: Versuch einer qualitativen Bestimmung.
Unveröfftl. Dissertation, Universität Bern, Philosophisch-historische Fakultät.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Job satisfaction and resignation in four
samples
General job
satisfaction
Resignation
Comp
Arch
Sales
Secr
3.50
4.15
4.18
4.12
(.94)
(.90)
(.65)
(1.04)
1.85
1.87
3.28
2.27
(.79)
(1.02)
(.79)
(1.14)
Comp = Computer scientists (Baillod, 1994)
Arch = Architects (unpublished data, University of Bern, Dept. of Psychology
Sales = Saleswomen (Stalder, 1989)
Secr = Secretaries (Ruch, 1985)
University of Bern
Baillod, J. (1992). Fluktuation bei Computerfachleuten (Turnover among computer specialists). Bern: Lang.
Ruch, L. (1985). Strukturvergleich im Sekretariatsbereich (A comparison or working structures among secretaries).
Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Bern, Department of Psychology.
Stalder, B. (1989). Verkäuferinnen: Arbeitssituation und Gesundheit. (Saleswomen: Work situation and health). Upublished
Master’s Thesis, Department of Psychology, Universität Bern, Switzerland.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Forms of job satisfaction & Health Complaints
(Saleswomen)
health complaints
3
2.59
2.59
2.44
2.5
1.94
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Sat- Res-
Sat- Res+
Sat+ Res-
Sat+ Res+
Forms of job satisfaction
Sat+/Res- significantly different from all other groups
University of Bern
Stalder, B. (1989). Verkäuferinnen: Arbeitssituation und Gesundheit. (Saleswomen: Work situation and
health). Upublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Psychology, Universität Bern, Switzerland.
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Forms of Job Satisfaction & Intention to Quit
(Computer Specialists)
health complaints
4
3.64
3.64
3.5
3
2.51
2.5
2.12
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Sat- Res-
Sat- Res+
Sat+ Res-
Sat+ Res+
Forms of job satisfaction
Sat+/Res- significantly different from all other groups
Baillod, J. (1992). Fluktuation bei Computerfachleuten (Turnover among computer specialists). Bern: Lang.
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Forms of job satisfaction and well-being:
Irritation among job beginners
(Young Workers from five occupations, t1)
MEAN Irritation
5,00
4,00
3,00
*
**
3,48
3,12
3,37
3,02
2,00
1,00
Sat-/Res-
Sat-/Res+
Sat+/Res-
Sat+/Res+
t1: Forms of Job Satisfaction (N=1356)
Unpublished data, Aequas-Study, University of Bern,
Psychology of Work and Organizations
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Forms of job satisfaction and well-being:
Irritation among job beginners
health complaints
(Young Workers from five occupations, t2)
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3
2.9
2.8
3.74
p < .10
3.33
3.16
Sat- Res-
3.12
Sat- Res+
Sat+ Res-
Sat+ Res+
Forms of job satisfaction
t2, n = 632
Unpublished data, Aequas-Study, University of Bern,
Psychology of Work and Organizations
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
General Job Satisfaction and resigned attitude
towards work:
Associations with third variables
Intention to quit
Job
satisfaction
Resignation
- .37*
.27*
-.31*
.45*
-.14
.23*
(Computer specialists)
Health complaints
(salespeople)
Back pain
(Secretaries)
University of Bern
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer
Resigned attitude and „unwinding“:
Changes in adrenalin in the evening compared to the end
of work (in per cent)
15
12
health complaints
10
3
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-16
-17
Res -
Forms
Res
+ of job satisfaction
Res -
t1
University of Bern
Aequas sub-project Bern, unpublished data
Res +
t2
Psychology of Work and Organizations
N. K. Semmer

similar documents