Short Presentation Title

Report
SAP HANA DATABASE
Mihnea Andrei
SAP Products & Innovation HANA Platform
July 8, 2014
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Agenda
SAP
SAP HANA DB Background
Architecture
Column Store & Compression
Snapshot Isolation
Outlook
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SAP
Who was SAP (before HANA)?
Sales Order
Management
Financial/Mgmt
Accounting
Production Planning
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Business
Intelligence
Talent Management
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74% of the world’s
transaction revenue
touches an SAP system.
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SAP
Business Applications – Database & Technology – Analytics – Cloud – Mobile
Annual revenue (IFRS) of € 16,82 billion
More than 253,500 customers in 188 countries
More than 66,500 employees – and locations in more than 130 countries
A 42-year history of innovation and growth as a true industry leader
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Products & Innovation HANA Platform
California Campus – Worldwide
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SAP HANA DB Background
Why did we build HANA?
How Did the SAP Use Database Before HANA?
See “The SAP Transaction Model: Know Your Applications”, SIGMOD 2008 Industrial
Talk
 Database was mainly a dumb store …
– Retrieve/Store data (Open SQL, no stored procedures)
– Transaction commit, with locks held very briefly
– Operational utilities
 … because SAP kept the following in the application server:
–
–
–
–
–
Application logic
Business object-level locks
Queued updates
Data buffers
Indexes
With the HANA platform, computation-intensive data-centric operations are moved to
the Database
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DRAM Price/GB
Year
Price/GB
2013
2010
2005
2000
1995
1990
1985
1980
$5.50
$12.37
$189
$1,107
$30,875
$103,880
$859,375
$6,328,125
Source: http://www.statisticbrain.com/average-historic-price-of-ram/
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In-Memory Computing
CPU
4-8 sockets
Core
Core
4-12 cores/CPU
L1 Cache
L1 Cache
1 NS, 64K/core
L2 Cache
L2 Cache
3 NS, 256k/core
L3 Cache
Main Memory
Disk
8 NS, >2M shared
80 NS, TBs
SSD: 100K NS
HD: 10M NS
Yes, DRAM is 125,000
times faster than disk, but
DRAM access is still 10-80
times slower than on-chip
caches
Using Intel Ivy Bridge for approximate values.
Actual numbers depends on specific hardware.
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Enterprise Workloads are Read Dominated
Workload in Enterprise Applications consists of:
100%
90 %
80 %
70 %
60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
0 %
Write:
Delete
Modification
Insert
Read:
Range Select
Table Scan
Lookup
OLTP
OLAP
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Workload
Workload
 Mainly read queries (OLTP 83%, OLAP 94%)
 Many queries access large sets of data
100%
90 %
80 %
70 %
60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
0 %
Write:
Delete
Modification
Insert
Read:
Select
TPC-C
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Simplify Technology Stack with the SAP HANA
Platform
Insight to Action
Contextual. Real-time. Closed-loop.
Applications
Analytics
SAP HANA Platform
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SAP HANA Database Background
BWA / BIA
Trex
Enterprise
Search
NewDB
/ HANA
BW on
HANA
Suite on
HANA
2011
2012
HANA
Platform
MaxDB
PTime
Sybase IQ/ASE/SA/RS/etc.
Ancient times
2000-2009
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2010
now
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SAP HANA DB Architecture
SAP HANA DB Processes
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Business Applications
Connection and Session Management
SQL
Authorization
Manager
SQL Script
…
MDX
Calculation Engine
Optimizer and Plan Generator
Transaction
Manager
Execution Engine
In-Memory Processing Engines
Metadata
Manager
Persistency
Column Engine
Row Engine
Logging and Recovery
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Text Engine
Data Storage
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Distributed Share-Nothing In-Memory Computing
NewDB
Database Server
NewDB
Database Server
Execution
Layer
Execution
Layer
R
In-Memory Stores
R
NewDB
Database Server
Execution
Layer
R
In-Memory Stores
R
R
Persistence Layer
Persistence Layer
In-Memory Stores
R
Persistence Layer
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Column Store
& Compression
SAP HANA Technology
Hybrid Data Storage
SAP HANA Row Store
stores tables by row
Att1

Att2
Att3
Att4
SAP HANA Column Store
stores tables by column
Att1
Att5
Tuple 1
Tuple 1
Tuple 2
Tuple 2
Tuple 3
Tuple 3
Tuple n
Tuple n
Application often processes single records at once

many selects and /or updates of single records

Application typically accesses the complete record

Columns contain mainly distinct values

Aggregations and fast searching not required

Small number of rows (e.g. configuration tables)
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Att2
Att3
Att4
Att5

Search and calculation on values of a few columns

Big number of columns

Big number of rows and columnar operations


aggregate, scan, etc.
High compression rates possible

Most columns contain only few distinct values
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SAP HANA Technology
Dictionary Compression & N-bit Compression
Classical Row Store
Company
[CHAR50]
Region
[CHAR30]
Group
[CHAR5]
INTEL
USA
A
Siemens
Europe
Siemens
HANA Column Store
0
1
2
3
INTEL
Siemens
SAP
IBM
0 Europe
1 USA
0 A
1 B
2 C
0
1
0
B
1
0
1
Europe
C
1
0
2
SAP
Europe
A
2
0
0
SAP
Europe
A
2
0
0
IBM
USA
A
3
1
0
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Dictionary for attribute/
column „Group“
Index Vector
Stored in one memory chunk
=> data locality for fast scans
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SAP HANA Technology
Compression with run length encoding
Classical Row Store
Difficult to compress
HANA Column Store:
Dictionary compressed
0
1
2
3
INTEL
Siemens
SAP
IBM
HANA Column Store:
Run length compressed*
0 A
1 B
2 C
0
1
2
3
INTEL
Siemens
SAP
IBM
0 Europe
1 USA
0 A
1 B
2 C
1 x „0“
1 x „1“
1 x „0“
1
2 x „1“
4 x „0“
1 x „1“
0
2
2 x „2“
1 x „1“
1 x „2“
2
0
0
1 x „3“
A
2
0
0
A
3
1
0
Company
[CHAR50]
Region
[CHAR30]
Group
[CHAR5]
INTEL
USA
A
0
1
0
Siemens
Europe
B
1
0
Siemens
Europe
C
1
SAP
Europe
A
SAP
Europe
IBM
USA
0 Europe
1 USA
3 x „0“
* Note that there is a variety of compression methods
and algorithms like run-length compression
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Snapshot Isolation
time
oldest reader tx1 commit tx2 begin
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tx3 commit
tx2 access
011000……………001101111100111
011001……………101101111011
111
000001……………100000000001000
inserted
11111
deleted
100010……………01000000010
base list of rows visible to all
111011……………111101
DATA-D……………DATA-D ATA-DA TA-
Initial Design – set oriented, optimized for OLAP
tx4 begin
& access
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New Design – OLTP friendly
valid valid
from to
tx3: delete where …
tx2: insert n rows
New
rows
tx1: insert 1 row
New row
– Valid from/to for every row?
tx3
tx1
tx3
Problems to solve
 Memory overhead
tx2
…
DATA
 Tx identity: TID vs. CID
– If TID: visibility rules, TCB memory overhead
– If CID: DML time ID, atomic commit, post-commit
 L2/3 cache friendly
– Stay local, avoid dereferencing pointers
 OLAP performance
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txn: reader
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Outlook
Where is HANA going next?
Continuing Challenges of Emerging Hardware
 Challenge 1: Parallelism: Take advantage of tens, hundreds, thousands of cores
 Challenge 2: Large memories & data locality/NUMA
– Yes, DRAM is 125,000 times faster than disk…
– But DRAM access is still 10-80 times slower than on-chip caches
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HANA Platform On-Going Architectural Evolution
Data models
 Flexible schemas, graph functionality, geospatial, time series, historical data,
Big Data, external libraries
Resource and workload management
 Memory, threads, scheduling, admission control, service level management, data aging
Application services
 XS Engine, CDS and River
Continuing performance improvements
 Hardware advances, NUMA, improved modularization and architecture
Cloud and multi-tenancy
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Co-innovating the Next Big Wave in Hardware Evolution
Multi-Core and Large “Memory” Footprints
Storage Class Memories / Non-Volatile Memory
 Leverage as DRAM and/or as persistent storage
On-Board DIMMs
 Very high density, byte-addressable
 DRAM like (< 3X) latency and bandwidth; similar endurance
 Compete with disk on cost/bit by 2020
Extreme Speed Network Fabric/Interconnects
 Inter-socket NUMA gets worse while inter-host NUMA gets better
 Inter-socket and Inter-host latencies converge
Exploiting Dark Silicon for Database Hardware Acceleration
 Also exploit GPUs for specific use cases, such as regression analysis
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Thank you!
Contact information:
Arne Schwarz, [email protected]
Mihnea Andrei, [email protected]
Richard Pledereder, [email protected]
http://www.careersatsap.com/
http://jobs.sap.com
https://www.saphana.com
http://www.sap.com/pc/tech/in-memory-computing-hana.html
© 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved.
© 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company.
All rights reserved.
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