Ancient Egypt Travel Brochure

Report
Ancient Egypt: A Trip Fit For A
Pharaoh!
By: Iris Wang, Emily Han, & Melissa Tjong
There are so many sites to see and so
many great deals! You can cruise down
the Nile or visit the Great Pyramids and
the Sphinx!
Here is a preview of Ancient Egypt...
Fun Facts About Ancient Egypt
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Ancient Egyptians thought it important to record information
on religion and government and thus invented a type of
picture writing called hieroglyphics
Later on, an easier way of writing was created, called Demotic
script; this was also invented by Egyptians so they were able to
preserve history, beliefs, and ideas
First to have a government system; the pharaoh had an
organized army, a police force, and a huge number of ministers
and government officials that helped him
Invented a decimal system that consisted of 7 different
symbols
Created the idea of mummification and sending dead people
to their afterlife
Fun Facts (cont.)
 Built pyramids that pharaohs were buried in
 Ancient Egypt had many skilled and trained
laborers who were often well-respected in their
community and had a comfortable lifestyle;
their social standing depended on their skill
and experience
 Egypt’s pharaohs were the most powerful
people in Egypt and thus were named “Lord of
the Two Lands”; they owned all land and made
laws, collected taxes, defended Egypt, and was
also respected as their religious leader
 Today more than 70,000,000people live along
the Nile’s banks
Egypt’s Geography
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There are deserts to the east and west of the Nile River and mountains
to the south
This type of geography left ancient Egyptians in isolation which
allowed them to develop a truly distinctive culture and a natural
barrier from invaders
The Nile was Egypt’s source of life; it gave fresh water for bathing and
drinking, supported transportation and trade, provided materials for
building, making cloths, and paper
In the spring, water runs off the mountains and floods the Nile, which
after the floods receded, gave them fertile soil
Ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into to lands,
“the red land” and “the black land”
“Red land” symbolized the red barren deserts to the east and west of
the Nile
“Black land” symbolized the fertile black silt along the banks of the
Nile
Had fertile land as well as natural resources
Across the country, there were places that supplied Egyptians with
copper, gold, tin, amethyst, limestone, turquoise, feldspar, granite,
alabaster, quartzite, and basalt
Walk Like An Egyptian: Family Life
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Ancient Egyptians highly valued family life
Regarded children as a blessing
In lower classes, mothers had to take care of their children while if a
noble had children, they had slaves and servants to take care of the
kids
Women and girls were always expected to obey fathers and husbands
although they could own land, business deals, and represent
themselves in court cases
Though women were of a lesser position than men, mothers and wives
could be the actual ruling power of Egypt if their sons or husbands
were the pharaoh
Children looked after elderly parents
Sons inherited land and daughters inherited household goods
Jobs that women had include: maids, nannies, mourners, perfume
makers, farmers, acrobats, dancers, singers, and musicians; were able
to be priestesses if they were noble
Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands, farmers, craftsmen, and
scribes; only a handful of people were nobles
Family Life (cont.)
 Girls learned
how to maintain the house at 4
years old; included learning to sew, cook, keep
house clean, make clothes, plant fields, and
prepare food
 They were married at 8-12 years old
 Boys’ learning was separated from the girls’
 After 5 years, poor boys would help with men
jobs in the fields and their education went
from age 7-16
 At 16, they could work and could marry when
they were 17-20
 Their lifespan was about 30 years for a poor
man
Households
 Egyptians built mudbrick homes
 Grew some of their own food and
traded in
villages for food and goods they couldn’t
produce
 In their houses, there were clay ovens and open
fires to bake, foil, stew, fry, grill, and roast
 Their favorite food was bread and beer made
from barley
 They used the sun and water clocks to keep
track of the time
 Their calendar was based on the star Sirius
 Was 365 days long
Egyptian Style
All hair was short
Young girls had pigtails
Young boys shaved their heads
Everyone wore jewelry, earrings, armlets,
bracelets, and anklets; nobles wore
jeweled and beaded collars called wesekhs
which were made of gold, silver, and
precious stones
Clothes were made of linen
People mostly wore skirts
Men's skirts were called kilts
Games
Egyptians loved games
A couple were Senet, also known as
Seega, and Dogs and Jackals
Senet symbolized the passage of the
diseased through the Underworld
Dogs and Jackals had pawns with the
heads of animals
Religion
Egyptians believed
in Polytheism
Anubis was God of embalming the
dead
Ra was the sun god
He was the most important god
Horus is known as the protector and
ruler of the earth.
Temples were the homes of gods and
goddesses
Egyptian Hieroglyphics
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Hieroglyphics is the Egyptian language, and they are drawings
of familiar objects, simplified so they’re easier to draw.
Made up of three types of symbols; alphabetic signs
correspond to a letter or sound used by that sign.
Syllabic symbols stand for sounds produced by a group of
letters, a syllable.
Determinative signs relate to a specific object or idea, like man,
woman, or water.
They can be read from left to right, right to left, or top to
bottom.
Hieroglyphics means “sacred drawings” in Greek.
The Egyptians used them from 3000BC to 300AD.
After Alexander the Great conquered Egypt, the Egyptians used
the Greek alphabet. They used hieroglyphs for religious things.
The Rosetta Stone
A troop of French soldiers found the
stone in the city of Rosetta in 1799.
 The Rosetta Stone was inscribed with
a law made in 196BC, written in two
forms of hieroglyphics and in ancient
Greek.
 A French scholar named Jean
François Champollion translated the
Egyptian into Greek.
Champollion also found out that
hieroglyphs had originally been
pictographs, but they stood for
sounds in later times.
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This is picture shows the alphabet in hieroglyphics
Egypt’s History
 Home to one of
the most ancient and earliest
civilizations
 History was split into 3 different time periods; Old
Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom
 Old Kingdom- this was the only time period when
pharaohs were buried in pyramids
 Middle Kingdom- was known as the Golden Age
because it was the time when trade, art, and
literature flourished
 New Kingdom- Egypt’s expansion period and when
pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings
Famous Landmarks
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Great Pyramids- a few of many amazingly built
pyramids; these are 3 of the best preserved
pyramids located in Giza
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Great Sphinx- a large human-headed lion that was
carved from a mound of natural rock in Giza; it is
guarding the pharaoh who built it, Khafre’s,
pyramid
Pyramid Theories
There are many theories about how Ancient
Egyptians built their pyramids.
Some believed aliens helped them build
the pyramids
Herodotus wrote that they used “giant
machines”
The most likely theory is that about
100,000 people were employed. They built
ramps and dragged the stones up where
they set them into place
The Great Pyramids of Giza
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They are the three most well preserved and famous pyramids
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Named Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
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Pyramids named after the pharaohs who built them and are buried in them
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Built in the 4th dynasty of Egypt
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Construction of the first pyramid, Khufu, started in 3200 B.C.
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Scientists can understand the age of the pyramids because the pottery in the
pyramids look like the style of pottery from the time of Khufu, Khafre, and
Menkaure
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Also have inscriptions inside to somewhat tell us when it was built
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Many unique chambers in each pyramid including: Upper Grand Galley, Lower
Grand Galley, King’s chamber, Queen’s chamber, false chamber in case of
burglars, and a room where all the pharaoh’s possessions were stored
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In front of the Great Pyramids, stands the Sphinx guarding these tombs
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Tombs for pharaohs and queens
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80 known pyramids in Egypt
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At the top of the pyramid there would be a stone in the shape of a pyramid
covered in gold or electrum
Pyramid Khufu
 Also known as the Great Pyramid
 Construction of
the first pyramid, Khufu, started in 3200
B.C.
 Construction was overviewed by Khufu’s brother,
Hemienu
 Largest pyramid from three
 Weighs about 6 million tons
 More than 2,300,000 limestone and granite blocks were
pushed, pulled, and dragged into place on Khufu.
 Average weight of each block was 2.5 tons
 The base of this pyramid is 230 meters or 755.9 feet on
each side; covered 13 acres in all
 480.6 feet tall
Pyramid Khafre
Second
largest pyramid in Giza
Stands at a staggering height of 470.5
feet
The base of this pyramid is 230 meters or
755.9 feet
Stands of higher ground, giving the
impression that it is larger than pyramid
Khufu.
The entrance is 50 ft above ground level.
Has 2 passages traveling into the
pyramid
Pyramid Menkaure
Smallest pyramid
from the three in Giza
Built for and by Menkaure, Kafre’s son.
Built in 26th century B.C.
Was 65.5m tall when built; nowadays it
stands 62m or 204 feet
Thought to have been enlarged during
building process
Made of limestone and pink granite
Is in the southwest outskirts of Cairo,
Egypt
Reasons Why You Should Visit Egypt Today
Our limited price of
$500 to Egypt from
New York isn’t going to wait very long for
you to get it!!!
Buy a round trip ticket and save 10%!!!
Get a brochure with a coupon for 25% off a
Great Pyramids tour.
Contact us at
http://www.amazingairlines.webs.com or
email us at [email protected]
HURRY!   
Bibliography
Pictures
 lifepsychologyandalotmore.blogspot.com
 http://www.idstyle.com/safari/egypt/hieroglyphics-table.jpg
 http://profyasser.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/sphinx2.jpg
 http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rose
tta_stone.aspx
 http://www.ask-aladdin.com/pyramid.htm
 http://freestockphotos.com/EGYPT/VultureNeck.JPG
 http://cache.virtualtourist.com/2812290-Nile_River_at_Aswan-Aswan.jpg
Fast Facts & Geography
 http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html
 http://egypt.mrdonn.org/index.html
 www.mrdowling.com/604egypt.html
Daily Life
 http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html
 http://www.msnu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife.html
 http://www2.sptimes.com/egypt/egyptcredit.4.2.html
Bibliography (cont.)
Pyramids
 http://www.ask-aladdin.com/pyramid.htm
 http://www.unmuseum.org/bldpyram.htm
 www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pyramids/home
 www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/
Hieroglyphics
 http://www.mrdowling.com/604-rosettastone.html

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/literature
/hieroglyphs.htm

http://www.seaworld.org/fun-zone/funguides/egypt/hieroglyphics.htm

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