U6 Elements and Principles of Design

Report
• Analyze the product’s visual properties using Visual Analysis
• Visual design principles and Visual design elements
constitute an aesthetic vocabulary that is used to describe an
object.
VISUAL
PRINCIPLES
VISUAL
ELEMENTS
D
E
S
I
G
N
Eight integral components
used in the creation of a
design:
The elements are like
baking/cooking ingredients
that can be mixed together in
a recipe.
POINT
LINE
SHAPE
SIZE
SPACE
COLOR
TEXTURE
VALUE
• Most basic element of design
• Has position but no dimension
• Can be described by coordinates on a
plane
• Used to indicate a location
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
In this example, points are used to represent the
joints between bones of a posable 3D character. This
joint representation is part of an animation rig that an
animator uses to manipulate and animate the much
more complicated character model.
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
• Has only a length dimension
• Can be used to
• Define a boundary
• Indicate volume
• Create textures and patterns
• Suggest movement
• Create perspective and depth
• Imply emotion
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Microsoft Office clipart
Microsoft Office clipart
HORIZONTAL LINESRepresent calm, peace and
relaxation.
VERTICAL LINES Represents
dignity, formality, stability
and strength.
DIAGONAL LINESRepresent action, activity,
excitement and movement.
CURVED LINES- Represents
freedom, the appearance of the
natural, softness and creates a
soothing feeling or mood.
Described by a number of qualities
• Hue: base color (e.g., red)
• Value: lightness or darkness
• Saturation: purity or intensity relative to gray
Landscape designers use color to add
variety and interest to their designs.
• Color affects how humans feel and respond to
the product.
• Temperatures
• Warm Colors
• Reds, oranges, yellows
• Cool Colors
• Blues, purples, greens
Toy designers use color to add variety and
interest to their designs.
• Color has an immediate and profound effect on a design
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clipart
Many colors can have a cultural, historical, or popular
connotation. Green, for example, is associated with plants
and nature and often implies environmental and ecological
awareness.
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Designers can use these color associations to their advantage
and use colors to provoke desired thoughts and emotions.
• Relative lightness or darkness of a color, object, or shape
Color Gradient
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• Allows us to perceive shapes and the illusion of 3D objects on a
2D surface
Shading
provides the
gradations of
value that
produce a 3D
effect on a 2D
flat piece of
paper.
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
• A 2D area enclosed by lines or curves
• Types
• Geometric: square, circle, triangle
• Mechanical: simple shapes made of straight and curved lines
• Organic: natural or simulating nature
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Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Geometric
Mechanical
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Organic
The shape,
outline, or
configuration
of anything.
Note how the same function is served but
the form and shapes are different
Examples
•Squares
•Ovals
•Circles
•Rectangles
•Ellipses
•Triangles
Organic shapes are frequently used in
consumer products. The most efficient
shapes for performing specific tasks can
often be found in nature.
• A 3D volume or solid
• Often implied on a 2D surface by careful use of value
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Form follows function
2007
http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/carreviews/firstdriv
es/213666/nissan_mixim.html
• Areas between and around parts of an image or the implied
depth in that image
• Types
• Positive
• Negative
©iStockphoto.com
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Space in your design can
enlarge or reduce the
visual space and affect
perception of the product.
•Open, uncluttered spaces
•Cramped, busy
•Unused vs. good use of
space
• The surface look or feel of something.
Types
•Smooth surface
•Reflects more light and,
therefore, is a more intense
color.
•Rough surface
•Absorbs more light and,
therefore, appears darker.
There are five principles that encompass an interesting
design.
The principles of design are like how you combine and utilize baking ingredients. Do you blend,
whip or fold, do you fry, bake or broil, slow roast or microwave? How much flour, salt, spice or
baking powder do you use?
• Many principles add to an interesting design
•Balance
•Proportion
•Emphasis
•Unity
•Contrast
•Economy
•Rhythm
• Visual and physical balance
• The distribution of elements within a design
• Types
• Symmetrical (formal)
• Asymmetrical (informal)
• Radial
• The elements within the design are identical in visual weight in
relation to a centerline or axis
©iStockphoto.com
©iStockphoto.com
The Taj Mahal Mausoleum
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Microsoft clipart
Microsoft Office clipart
• The elements within the design are not identical but are
arranged to provide a balanced visual weight
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
Microsoft Office clipart
• Distribution of components in a circular pattern around a center
point
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Dresden Frauenkirche
Dresden, Germay
Microsoft clipart
• Used to draw attention to one area
• Focal Point – feature in a design that attracts
the eye
• Can be achieved through
–
–
–
–
–
Size
Placement
Shape
Contrast
Use of lines
Wikipedia.org
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What is the focal point in each composition?
What is the focal point of this device? How is emphasis
Microsoft clipart
achieved? What is the purpose of the emphasis?
©iStockphoto.com
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• The degree of relative
difference between
elements
©iStockphoto.com
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
This shows contrast between natural and
man-made objects as well as contrast in
texture and color 
• Can be used to emphasize an element of
a design
In the line drawings,
the designer provides
emphasis with fills of
color on an otherwise
neutral composition.
Image courtesy Autodesk, Inc.
• Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or
pattern
• A harmonious pattern or sequence
• Types
–
–
–
–
Regular
Random
Gradated
Graduated
Microsoft Office clipart
• An element is repeated at the same
repetition/interval
Microsoft Office clipart
Microsoft Office clipart
• The repetition of the
element is random or
situated at irregular
intervals
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• The repeated element is identical with the
exception of one detail increasing or
decreasing gradually with each repetition
Left: Stack of rocks used
as focal point in
landscaping
Right: The Chinese Tower
English Gardens
Munich, Germany
Microsoft Office clipart
www.wikimedia.org
Microsoft Office clipart
• The repeated element becomes closer or
further apart
Microsoft Office clipart
Microsoft Office clipart
Microsoft Office clipart
• Comparative relationship
between elements in a
design with respect to size
• Scale – The proportion or
size of an element in relation
to the other elements
Learn about
the Golden
Ratio in
design
work.
• The consistent use of
design elements
Microsoft Office clipart
©iStockphoto.com
•
•
•
•
Use of the bare minimum of elements
Can be achieved by removing extraneous elements
In simplicity there is beauty
Less is more
If you can remove an element
within a design, and the design still
accomplishes the goals within the
constraints, you have practiced
economy of design.
Graphic signs provide good
examples of economy because they
often simplify a complex idea with
only essential details.
Simplicity in Design: iMac Vs. PC
1. Take 3 pictures of your
product (T, FR, RS)
2. Put them into 1 Powerpoint
slide.
3. Save slide in your team
SHARE folder
4. Label the pictures/views
5. Apply design elements and
principles analysis to your
product.
6. On the next slide is an
example of how to fill in the
Visual Analysis matrix
handed out in class.
7. At left is a an example of
how the concepts are applied
in a more narrative format.

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