sustainable manufacturing

Report
Sustainable manufacturing
A (very) brief overview + evaluation
matrix
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
1
Current Research Focus Areas
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sustainable materials (energy-efficient material design for manufacture: molecular,
microstructural and metallurgical transformation of materials; self-healing materials
and memory alloys)
Sustainable product development (energy-efficient products; sustainability metrics
for products; 6R-based product design for sustainability)
Sustainable manufacturing processes (energy-efficient, environmentally benign
manufacturing process development – toxic-free, hazardless, safe and secure
technologies; minimal use of metal working fluids and chemicals; tribological interface
science; coatings; surface and sub-surface integrity studies)
Sustainable manufacturing systems (metrics for sustainability performance,
ontology for interoperability of sustainable supply chains; sustainable quality systems;
energy-efficient supply chain operations and manufacturing systems)
Society, Public policy and Regulatory issues in Sustainable Manufacturing
(Societal Impact studies; legislative and administrative issues; policy implementation;
product and process liability; ethics)
Sustainable service and health care systems (interdisciplinary work on the
interaction between social systems and manufacturing systems)
Economic analysis of sustainable products and processes (marketing strategies
and business economics for sustainable products and processes)
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
2
Holistic and Total Life-cycle Approach
• Emphasis on all four product lifecycle stages
Manufacturing Use
Premanufacturing Post-use
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
3
Closed-loop Material Flow – The 6R Approach
6R
3R
CONCEPT
CONCEPT
NS
EN
ER
G
Y
IS
EM
O
SI
Source: Jawahir et al. (2006)
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
4
Evolution of Sustainable Manufacturing
Innovation Elements
Sustainable Manufacturing
Remanufacture
(Innovative, 6R-based)
Stakeholder Value, $
Redesign
Green Manufacturing
Recover
(Environmentally-benign, 3R-based)
Recycle
Lean Manufacturing
(Waste Reduction-based)
Reuse
Traditional Manufacturing
(Substitution-based)
Reduce
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
Time
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
5
Sustainable Manufacturing: Definition
The creation of manufactured products that use processes that minimize negative
environmental impacts, conserve energy and natural resources, are safe for
employees, communities, and consumers and are economically sound
(US Department of Commerce, 2009)
Sustainable manufacturing includes:
(a) manufacturing of “sustainable” products, and
(b) sustainable manufacturing of all products.
The former includes:
manufacturing of renewable energy, energy efficiency, green building, and other
“green” & social equity-related products,
and, the latter emphasizes:
sustainable manufacturing of all products taking into account the full
sustainability/total life-cycle issues related to the products manufactured
(National Council for Advanced Manufacturing (NACFAM), 2009)
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
6
Three Major Focus Areas
Overall focus on holistic view and integration of sustainability issues at the product,
process and system levels across all four life-cycle stages (pre-manufacturing,
manufacturing, use and post-use) and considering all three sustainability aspects
(environment, economy and society)
Products
Improved metrics for
product sustainability
evaluation
Product design for
sustaibnability
Case studies:
Autobody sustainability,
Suatainability evaluation in
laser printers, Sustainable
biomedical implants, DfS
study of aluminum
beverage cans
Processes
Machining: Improved metrics for process
sustainability scoring; Dry, near-dry and cryogenic
machining; Improving surface integrity, and hence
product life, through machining; Process modeling
and optimization
Brazing: Experimental development of lead-free
soldering; Modeling and optimization of wetting
mechanics and joint formation
Friction stir processing and Super plastic
forming: Experimental development of FSP to
produce ultrafine grain materials for superplastic
forming of sustainable, light-weight alloys;
Process modeling and optimization
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
Systems
Sustainable supply chains,
and sustainable production
and service systems
Improved metrics for
evaluation of environmental,
economic and societal
impacts
Development of
interoperability platforms for
sustainable manufacturing
7
Fazleena Badurdeen
Sustainable Manufacturing Systems and Supply Chains
•
Focus: Design and optimization of sustainable manufacturing systems and
supply chains to improve economic, environmental and societal performance
•
Emphasis:
–
–
–
–
•
Total product life-cycle (pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, use and post-use ) focus
Closed-loop material flow across the four lifecycle stages
Application of 6R’s for sustainable manufacturing
• Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover, Redesign, Remanufacture
Multiple product life-cycle emphasis
Research projects:
–
–
–
–
–
Next Generation sustainable supply chain modeling –
developing measurement systems and performance metrics
Risk analysis for sustainable supply chains
3rd Lifecycle
Coordinated sustainable product and supply
& beyond
chain design for closed-loop flow
Sustainable supplier performance evaluation modeling
Product-service system modeling to increase sustainable value-added
Reduce
sign
Rede
Rem
anuf
actu
re
2nd
Lifecycle
Recycle
Recover
Reuse
Pre-Manufacturing
Post Use
Manufacturing
Use
1st Lifecycle
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
8
Total Life-cycle Evaluation Matrix for Product
Sustainability
Influencing Factors in the Product Life-cycle Stages
Manufacturing
Use
Pre-manufacturing
Score
out of 10
Post-use
Score
out of 10
Score
out of 10
Material Extraction
7
Production Energy Used
7
Emissions
9
Recyclability
7
Design for Environment
8
Hazardous Waste Produced
9
Functionality
8
Remanufacturability
8
Material Processing
6
Renewable Energy Used
8
Hazardous Waste Generated
9
Redesign
7
Environment
(%) PSI (en_pm) =
Sustainability Components
Score
out of 10
(%) PSI (en_m) =
70
(%) PSI (en_u) =
80
86.67
Landfill Contribution
(%) PSI (en_pu) =
7
Worker Health
8
Work Ethics
7
Product Pricing
7
Take-back Options
7
Work Safety
8
Ergonomics
7
Human Safety
9
Re-use
6
Ergonomics
7
Work Safety
8
Upgradeablility
7
Recovery
7
Complaints
8
Society
(%) PSI (so_pm) =
(%) PSI (so_m) =
76.67
(%) PSI (so_u) =
73.33
77.5
(%) PSI (so_pu) =
6
Production Cost
6
Maintenance Cost
7
Recycling Cost
7
Labor Cost
3
Packaging Cost
7
Repair Cost
6
Disassembly Cost
8
Energy Cost
8
Consumer Injury Cost
8
Disposal Cost
4
Transportation Cost
(%) PSI (ec_m) =
5
Consumer Warranty Cost
(%) PSI (ec_pu) =
7
Remanufacturing Cost
(%) PSI (ec_pu) =
65
(%) PSI (ec_pm) =
(%) PSI pm =
45
(%) PSI m =
63.89
65
72.78
70
(%) PSI u =
78.06
(%) PSI pu =
77.29
(%) PSI so =
73.54
(%) PSI ec =
61.25
(%) PSI TLC =
70.69
66.67
Raw Material Cost
Economy
(%) PSI en =
72.5
7
68.06
Symbol
Score
Excellent
85-90%
Good
70-84%
Average
50-69%
Poor
< 50%
Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing
9

similar documents