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Report
Trait Approach
I. Introduction
II. Common Characteristics
III. Gordon Allport
IV. Henry Murray
V. Raymond Cattell
VI. The Big Five Model
VII. The Interpersonal Circumplex
VIII.Modern Applications of the Trait Approach
IX. Criticisms & Limitations
X. Strengths
I. Introduction
II. Common Characteristics
• Focus on average behavior
• Less concerned with underlying mechanisms
• Less to say about personality change
III. Gordon Allport
• Nomothetic versus ideographic approaches to
personality
• Central traits
• Secondary traits
• Cardinal traits
• The proprium
IV. Henry Murray
• Personology
• Psychogenic needs
• Some examples:
– Achievement
– Affiliation
– Dominance
– Nurturance
– Play
V. Raymond Cattell
• Factor analysis
• The 16 Personality Factor Inventory
Factor
Contrast
Warmth
Cold, selfish
Supportive, comforting
Intellect
Instinctive, unstable
Cerebral, analytical
Emotional Stability
Irritable, moody
Level headed, calm
Aggressiveness
Modest, docile
Controlling, tough
Liveliness
Somber, restrained
Dutifulness
Untraditional, rebellious
Social Assertiveness
Shy, withdrawn
Sensitivity
Coarse, tough
Paranoia
Trusting, easy-going
Abstractness
Practical, regular
Introversion
Open friendly
Anxiety
Confident, self-assured
Open-mindedness
Set-in-one’s-ways
Curious, exploratory
Independence
Outgoing, social
Loner, craves solitude
Perfectionism
Disorganized, messy
Tension
Relaxed, cool
Wild, fun-loving
Conforming, traditional
Uninhibited, bold
Touchy, soft
Wary, suspicious
Strange, imaginative
Private, quiet
Fearful, self-doubting
Orderly, thorough
Stressed, unsatisfied
VI. The Big Five Approach
Trait
Contrast
Openness
Down to earth
Conventional, uncreative
Prefer routine
Conscientiousness
Lazy
Aimless
Quitting
Hardworking
Ambitious
Persevering
Extraversion
Reserved
Loner
Quiet
Affectionate
Joiner
Talkative
Agreeableness
Antagonistic
Ruthless
Suspicious
Acquiescent
Softhearted
Trusting
Neuroticism (emotional
Calm
Even tempered
Hardy
Stability
Imaginative
Original, creative
Prefer variety
Worrying
Temperamental
Vulnerable
VII. The Interpersonal Circumplex
Sample Scatter Plot
Correlation Matrix
Trait
1. Forceful
2. Assertive
3. Meek
4. Timid
5. Kind
6. Agreeable
7. Cold
8. Cruel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1.00
.77
-.81
-.84
.12
.04
-.08
.01
1.00
-.77
-.83
.06
.05
.11
-.09
1.00
.79
.02
-.04
.01
.07
1.00
.12
.06
.08
-.09
1.00
.78
-.81
-.90
1.00
-.78
-.80
1.00
.77
1.00
Interpersonal Dimensions
Forceful
Assertive
Dominant
Cold
Cruel
Hostile
Friendly
Submissive
Meek
Timid
Kind
Agreeable
Laws of Complementarity
•
•
•
•
Dominance pulls submission
Submission pulls dominance
Friendliness pulls friendliness
Hostility pulls hostility
Interpersonal Circumplex Types
• Hostile-Submissive Types:
– Rebellious Distrustful Personality
– Self-effacing Masochistic Personality
• Friendly-Submissive Types
– Docile Dependent Personality
– Cooperative Overconventional Personality
Interpersonal Circumplex Types
• Friendly-Dominant Types:
– Responsible Hypernormal Personality
– Managerial Autocratic Personality
• Hostile-Dominant Types
– Competitive Narcissistic Personality
– Aggressive Sadistic Personality
VIII. Modern Applications of the Trait
Approach
• Type A Behavior
• The MMPI
MMPI
• Example of an “empirically derived” test
• Questions “earn” their way onto the final test
by statistically differentiating different groups
of people (people with and without
depression, people with and without
schizophrenia, people with and without
alcohol problems, etc…)
Simulated MMPI Items
Simulated MMPI Items
MMPI Clinical Scales
MMPI Clinical Scales
IX. Criticisms & Limitations
X. Strengths
The Biological Perspective
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
Introduction
Genetic Factors in Personality
Eysenck’s Theory of Personality
Temperament
Cerebral Activation Patterns
Evolutionary Personality Theory
I. Introduction
II. Genetic Factors in Personality
Trait
Genetic
(Heritability)
Familial
Environment
Non-shared
Environment
Well-being
.48
.13
.39
Social Potency
.54
.10
.39
Achievement
.39
.11
.50
Social Closeness
.40
.19
.41
Stress Reaction
.53
.00
.47
Alienation
.45
.11
.54
Aggression
.44
.00
.56
Control
.44
.00
.56
Harm Avoidance
.55
.00
.45
Traditionalism
.45
.12
.43
Absorption
.50
.03
.47
Positive Emotionality
.40
.22
.38
Negative Emotionality
.55
.02
.43
Constraint
.58
.00
.42
(Tellegen et al., 1988)
III. Eysenck’s Theory of Personality
Eysenck’s Supertraits or Types
• Extraversion
• Neuroticism
• Psychoticism
Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model
Extraversion
Sociability
HR1
HR2
Impulsiveness
Activity
Liveliness
Excitability
HR3
SR1 SR2 SR3 SR4
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Eysenck’s Two-Factor Model
Extraversion & Mood
3
2.5
2
Positive Mood
Score
Introverts
1.5
Extraverts
1
0.5
0
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thur
Fri
Sat
Sun
IV. Temperament
Buss & Plomin’s Temperament Factors
• Activity
– Vigor, tempo
• Emotionality
– Fear, anger, distress
• Sociability
– Attention of others, share activities, interaction
• (Impulsivity)
Temperament and Genetics
0.7
0.6
0.5
Degree of
Correlation
0.4
0.3
Identical Twins
0.2
Fraternal Twins
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
Emotionality
Activity
Sociability
V. Cerebral Activation Patterns
VI. Evolutionary Personality Theory
What if Charles Darwin had been a
psychologist?
“So, tell me
about your
mother…”
The Humanistic Approach
I. Introduction
II. The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers
III. Modern Humanistic Concepts
I. Introduction
Roots of the Humanistic Movement
• Existential philosophy
• The ideas of Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
Common Characteristics of Humanistic
Theories
•
•
•
•
An emphasis on personal responsibility
Here and now focus
Phenomenology
Growth
II. The Personality Theory of Carl
Rogers
Rogers’ Fully-Functioning Person
• Trust their
feelings/Intuitions
• Experience feelings
intensely & deeply
• Accept and express all
feelings
• Less likely to conform to
social roles
• Present focused
• Honest & open
• Open to and learn from
experience
• Constantly developing
& growing
• Oriented towards fully
living life
• Show care and concern
for others
• Creative
Key Definitions
• Self-Concept: An organized set of beliefs that
you hold about yourself. (Who are you?
Describe yourself.)
• Self-Esteem: One’s feelings of high or low selfworth (How do you feel about your selfconcept?)
Basic Needs
• Self-consistency: The absence of major conflict
between self-perceptions
• Congruence: Consistency between selfperceptions and experience
Anxiety & Defense
• Subception: the unconscious perception of
incongruence
• Triggers defenses of distortion & denial
Incongruence
Self-Concept
Experience
Congruence & the Fully Functioning
Person
Self-Concept
Experience
Conditional & Unconditional Positive
Regard
• Additional needs:
– Positive regard
– Positive self-regard
• Conditional positive regard from parents
creates “conditions of worth”
Conditions of Worth
• Personal standards that dictate when a person
can feel OK about him/herself.
Sample Q-Sort Statements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I am optimistic.
I often feel guilty.
I am intelligent.
I express my emotions
freely.
I understand myself.
I am lazy.
I am generally happy.
I am moody.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I am ambitious
I am an impulsive person.
I get anxious easily.
I make strong demands
on myself.
I get along easily with
others.
I often feel driven.
I am self-reliant.
I am responsible for my
troubles.
The Q-Sort & Psychotherapeutic
Change
III. Modern Humanistic Concepts
Self-Esteem & Failure
(Brockner et al., 1987)
90
80
70
60
Grade on
Second Test
50
High Self-Esteem
40
Low Self-Esteem
30
20
10
0
Did Well on First
Test
Did Poorly on First
Test
Social Attribute Ratings & Self-Esteem
(Brown & Smart, 1991)
7
6
5
Rating of Social 4
Attributes
3
Success
Failure
2
1
0
High Self-Esteem
Low Self-Esteem
Do you want to compare your exam to
another student’s?
Told this
student did…
Self-esteem
High
Low
worse than
you.
“Sure!”
“Why Not.”
better than
you.
“Let’s do it.”
“NO WAY!”
Self-Esteem & Western Culture
Exposure in Asian-Canadians
(APA, 1999)
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Score
3rd Generation
2nd Generation
Long-Term Immigrants
Recent Immigrants
Been Abroad
Never Been Abroad
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

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