FAS Trade Policy

Report
USDA’S
FOREIGN AGRICULTRAL SERVICE
U.S. Agriculture:
Trade Policy & Trade Barriers
AGRICULTURAL TRADE POLICY
– FAS’ Role in USDA – International Arm
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Trade (OASA)
Development (OCBD)
Foreign Service (OFSO/Overseas)
Marketing (OTP)
Analysis (OGA)
– FAS DC Offices
• Coordinate Ag Trade Policy for USDA
• Work with Interagency via USTR (Ag Affairs & other offices, TPSC)
• Coordinates USDA role in disputes
– FAS Overseas Offices
• Primary contact with local governments
• On-the-ground intel
• Reporting
AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS
Traditional Trade Barriers – Common Types:
• Tariff-based (bindings, etc)
• General GATT Principles (National Treatment, MFN,
etc.)
• Illegal subsidies
• Domestic purchasing
• TBT/Technical Barriers to Trade (labeling, standards,
etc.)
AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS
Ag-Specific Trade Barriers:
• WTO Ag Agreement
– Ag Domestic Support Levels – subsidy commitments
– Export Subsidies (market distorting)
– Quantitative Restrictions (TRQs and TRQ administration
issues)
AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS
WTO SPS Agreement
– What SPS Measures are
– Measures must be based on international standards from
OIE (World Org for Animal Health), IPPC (Int’l Plant
Protection Convention) or Codex, OR
– Measures must be based on sound science, least trade
restrictive necessary for member to achieve its appropriate
level of protection
– Examples: BSE, Biotech, Avian Influenza, etc
AGRICULTURAL TRADE BARRIERS
How FAS Addresses Trade Barriers (Least to Most
Intensive Approaches)
– Technical Level (regulatory agencies – APHIS, FSIS,
AMS, etc.)
– FAS Embassy/attaché interacts with local
government – informal or formal (demarche)
– DC Political level – letter, phone call, meeting
– Jointly with USTR –
• WTO/FTA committees (Agriculture, SPS, TBT)
• Bilateral Arrangements, e.g., CCAs, TIFAs
• Dispute Settlement – VERY uncommon, last resort
USDA: FAS
How to Contact FAS: www.fas.usda.gov
Email: [email protected]

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