ppt Wilson`s New Freedom

Ch 9, Section 5
Wilson’s New Freedom
Until 1937, on what month and day did a President’s term begin
and end?
• March 4th
• The one exception to this was George Washington’s first term which
began on April 30, 1789. His first term ended on March 4, 1793, and
thus that term was a bit short of the 4 year mark.
2. Since 1937 (due to a change in a Constitutional amendment) until
the present, on what month and day does a President’s term begin
and end?
• January 20th (Noon, EST)
• The result of this change caused FDR’s first term (March 1933-Jan
1937) to be a little less than 4 years.
3. Thus, given that Woodrow Wilson won the 1912
presidential election (in November), on what day did he
become President?
• March 4, 1913
4. How long did (and still do) Presidential terms last?
• For 4 Years
• See questions one and two for exceptions involving
George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt
5. From March 4, 1861 until March 4, 1913, which
political party held the U.S. Presidency for 44 out of
those 52 years?
• The Republican Party
6. But from March 4, 1913 until January 20, 1969,
which political party held the U.S. Presidency for
approximately 36 out of those 56 years?
• The Democratic Party
7. Thus, the election of the Democrat, Woodrow
Wilson to the U.S. Presidency was the beginning
of what kind of political era?
• A half-century political age in which the
Democratic Party returned as a viable national
presidential party, and not just a
Congressional, State-level, and regional party.
8. Woodrow Wilson’s initial profession was
• A History Professor
9. What university did Woodrow Wilson lead?
• Princeton University in New Jersey
10. In 1910, Woodrow Wilson was elected to
what office?
• Governor of New Jersey
11. As governor of New Jersey, Wilson was
known as what kind of governor?
• A Progressive
12. As president, Wilson’s program was known as
• The New Freedom
13. In the New Freedom, Wilson planned to attack
what three things?
• The trusts
• Tariffs
• High Finance
14. What was the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914?
• A federal law that prohibited corporations
from buying stocks of other companies, in
pursuit of establishing a monopoly
15. The Clayton Act also declared that what
organizations had rights to exist?
• Labor unions and Farm organizations
16. Due to the Clayton Act, what also became
• Strikes, Picketing, Boycotts
17. American Federation of Labor leader, Samuel
Gompers, called the Clayton Act what?
• The Magna Carta for labor (He meant it as a
18. What did the 1914 Federal Trade Commission
• It created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
and empowered it to investigate unfair business
19. What did the Revenue Act of 1913 do?
• Re-imposed the Income Tax
• Significantly lowered Tariffs (i.e. sales taxes on
imported goods)
20. What did the Sixteenth Amendment (ratified in
1913) do?
• It legalizes a federal income tax on individuals
21. What did the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 do?
• It established a banking system in which a
network of 12 district federal reserve banks
influence the money supply and interest rates
• In a sense, “The Fed” serves (to this day) as a
bank for the banks
22. By 1923, what percentage of American
banks were part of the Federal Reserve System?
• About 70%
23. As of 1910, in what 5 States did women have
the right to vote in federal elections?
• Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Washington, Idaho
24. After years of protests, consciousnessraising, lobbying Congress, and other forms of
political activism by advocates of women’s
suffrage, what did Congress do in 1919?
• Passed the Nineteenth Amendment (Granting
women the right to vote) thus sending it to
the states for ratification
25. When did enough States ratify the 19th Amendment,
thus giving all American women the right to vote?
• August 1920 (during Woodrow Wilson’s second term)
26. What was Woodrow Wilson’s record on Civil Rights for
Black Americans?
• Not very good
• Wilson was a native Southerner and a segregationist.
During his eight years in office, he did very little on
behalf of Civil Rights for African Americans
27. Who won the Presidential election of 1916?
• Wilson won re-election
28. When did World War One begin?
• August 1914
29. Basically, regarding WWI, Wilson wanted what,
at first?
• He wanted to keep the U.S. out of this European
30. But in April 1917, Wilson got Congress to do
• Declare War on Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
the Ottoman Empire
• The United States had entered WWI, on the side
of the Allies---namely Great Britain and France
31. The U.S. entry into WWI largely brought what to
an end?
• The Age of Progressivism

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