Working with texas water

Report
OVERCOMING
CHALLENGES WITH
E&P TECHNOLOGY
MIKE BAHORICH
29 JAN 2014
OVERCOMING CHALLENGES THROUGH TECHNOLOGY
 Australia
Seismic
 Fracwater treatment
 Natural Gas Fuel
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APACHE FZB PATENT SAVING $250MM/YR
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Half of seismic boats now use technology
Other half has not figured this out yet
Savings to industry should be about $500MM/year
Apache patented invention
IT STARTED WITH THIS
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STEERABLE STREAMER SYSTEMS
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FANNING EVERY LINE REDUCES POTENTIAL INFILL
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CONVENTIONAL
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BROADBAND
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APA WORLD’S FIRST SIM SOURCE ACQUISITION
SimSource
6000m
75m
18.75m
Conventional
37.5m
CONVENTIONAL
SIM SOURCE
AUTONOMOUS NODES – THE FUTURE ?
WesternGeco
Liquid Robotics
WaveGlider
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WATER TYPES – Treatment and Value
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FRESH
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< 1000 ppm TDS
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FRESH
BRACKISH
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>1000 -5000 even 10,000 ppm
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SALINE > 10, 000 ppm
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PRODUCED
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TDS = Total Dissolved Solids mg/liter =Salinity
Usually shallow
Not necessarily drinking water
from Oil & Gas wells, may have
hydrocarbons
Often 60,000 to > 100,000 ppm
Sea water ~ 35,000 TDS
Regulated surface handling and disposal
FRESH
BRACKISH
PRODUCED
SALINE
FRAC CHEMISTRY -- DICTATES WATER QUALITY
Low quality water works
Gels
X-Linker
Metal Cations
Friction Reducer
Synthetic Polymers
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WATER TYPES: Mixing Challenges
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Chemical Reactions
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Reactive Components
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pH change
Precipitation
Scaling
Colloid interactions
Iron (Fe)
H2S
Suspended solids
Barium, Magnesium,
Calcite etc.
Biocide
NEED BASED TREATMENT
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2
1
4
5
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1. Chemicals
2. Ozone oxidation
3. Nano-filtration
4. Hydrocyclones
5. Deionization
6. UV
MVR Evaporator, RO,
EC…and many more
PERMIAN BASIN ALTERNATIVE WATER SOURCES
SANTA ROSA
>2500 ft
Triassic sandstone
0 to 300 feet thick
Typically 50+
Up to 2400 feet deep
Flow rate ~1500 to 2500 BWPD
2 wells/section
TDS up to 100K
<10K eastern areas
Irion County
CAPITAN REEF
Permian Carbonate Dolomite
Up to 900 feet thick
Fresh at surface
50K TDS deep
High flow rate ~10,000 BWPD
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PRODUCED WATER STORAGE / TREATMENT
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180,000 Barrel water capacity
Graded pad, berm
Gravity flow, 3ft drop /bin
Dual lined steel on felt-like base.
Fill from top, or from below
Cable mesh bird protection
Monitored daily with radar probes
and manual gauges
Buried pipes
Treatment trailers –Chlorine Dioxide
(vendor)
FRAC WATER BY COUNTY
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Fresh water
Produced water
Brackish water
Source : Apache Internal Reports 2013 Operations
NEW TECHNOLOGY: APA, CAT, HAL, SLB
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Caterpillar bi-fuel kits: feed methane into the air intake which
reduces diesel useage by up to 70%.
Apache made a deal with Caterpillar, Halliburton and
Schlumberger to introduce these kits to fracture stimulation
while in the Caterpillar R&D stage.
Third party bi-fuel kits have been available but they may void
the Caterpillar warranty.
Granite Wash.
ENGINE TECHNOLOGY
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NATURAL GAS SUBSTITUTION – COST SAVINGS
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Potential cost savings at 70/30 natural gas : diesel ratio
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Granite Wash Stiles Ranch Example
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Diesel only
 36,290 gal @$3.60/gal
 $130,644
Diesel and Natural Gas
10,887 gal + 3,528 MCF @ $10/MCF
$39,193 + $35,280 = $74,473
APACHE WIKI PROJECT: SPE, SEG, AAPG
Apache is creating an industry Wiki
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Apache has made a deal with the SPE,
SEG and AAPG to create three industry
Wikis
SEG has finished the prototype based
on the “Dictionary of Geophysics”
SPE is working on content based on the
“Petroleum Engineering Handbook”
AAPG is behind but is developing plans
BENEFITS:
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Quick search tool to find
information
Links to technical papers
Updated by industry
people with available time
Superior to Wikis internal
to competitors

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