Human capacity building - University of Hawaii at Manoa

Report
The Role of University in
Enhancing Agricultural Sector
Catherine Chan-Halbrendt Ph.D.
Jean Fantle-Lepczyk B.A.
Ana Mane Ph.D.
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Outline
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Role of Public Agricultural Universities
Role of Agricultural Economics Research
US Land Grant Model and Funding
Role of Education, Research and Extension
Albanian Universities, Research Institutes and Funding
Albanian Agricultural Sector
Challenges to Ag Trade in Albania
EU Integration Standards and Albanian Agriculture
AHEED Project’s Role and Impacts
Looking Forward
Acknowledgements
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Role of Public Agricultural Universities
• Improvement of societal welfare through
agricultural activities
–Traditionally, teaching
–Evolved to include research and extension
–The ultimate goal: seamless integration of
research, teaching and extension
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Role of Agricultural Economics
Research
Goal for the Ag Sector:
• Competitive in the Ag Sector
• Provide Health and Well-being of citizens
• Sustainability of the Natural Resources
How to get there using Ag Economics Research:
• Human capacity building using economic
principles and tools to conduct research
• Disseminating research and policy publications
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
U.S. Land Grant (Public) University
Model
• Fundamental principles:
• Accessibility of higher education
• Practical, relevant and useful education
• Research for the public interest
• Connectedness to ALL the people
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Functional spirit of public
universities*
*remarks by W.J. Kerr, president of Oregon State
University
1. The spirit of initiative—Pioneering;
2. The spirit of growth—Progress;
3. The spirit of equal opportunity for all—
Democracy; and
4. The spirit of helpfulness—Service
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Instructor-trained skills
Research axis of excellence/technology
Extension where the rubber meets
the road
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Land Grant Funding Model
• Private
• Tuition, competitive grants, trade
associations, business, foundation
• Federal (US $32 Billion)
• Formula and competitive funds for relevant
basic and applied research and outreach
activities
• State and local governments
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Albanian Universities
• Traditionally, teaching
• Struggle to evolve to include research and extension activities
• Challenges:
• No similar US funding model for research and extension
• No reward guidelines and policies for excellence in
research, teaching and extension
• Expectations low
• Low pay
• Collaboration based on friendships rather than
complementarities of skills and needs
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Agricultural Research Institutes in
Albania (Streamlined)
• In the early 1990’s, Albania had 18 agricultural research
institutes.
• 4650 staff members
• 342 researchers
• By mid-2006 this number has reduced by 50% to 9
agricultural research institutes
• 700 employees
• After reorganization in 2006, the existing agricultural
research institutes were restructured into
• 5 Agriculture Technology Transfer Centers
• 1 Institute (Food Safety and Veterinary Institute)
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Research Funding in Albania
Generally, Albanian agricultural research is
funded by:
• Albanian government, via the Ministry of
Agriculture
• Foreign agencies and assistance projects
• In some cases, the faculty and students
fund themselves especially for graduate
studies.
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Importance of Agricultural Sector in
Albania
• 58% of total labor and 19 % of GDP comes
from the agricultural sector
• One of the most important sectors of the
Albanian economy
• About 56 % of the population live in rural
areas, where agriculture is the main activity
• Productivity and value are low
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Agricultural products, competitive?
• Recent trends indicate Albania’s potential for a modern and
competitive agricultural sector (increase self-sufficiency in
vegetables, eggs, milk and fruits)
• If the right policy environment engenders sufficient private
investment e.g. credit access a problem- 1% given to
agriculture
• Albania’s competitive advantage derives from three
fundamental factors:
• Climate
• Highly skilled labor force
• Proximity to markets
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Challenges to the Agriculture in
Albania
• Funding for R4D is less than 1%
• Human capacity building slow in responding to changing
environment
• Product quality and food safety (wine preferred Italian vs.
domestic)
• Students are theoretically and not practically trained and trained
students do not stay in agriculture
• Lack of connection between research and extension and farmer
• Production and marketing Issues (lack of market points in
northern and eastern areas and post-harvest facilities)
• Finance and credit (1% goes to agriculture)
• Import/Export - Perception of local products vs. imports
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Import/Export, a Particular Challenge
for Albanian Agriculture
• Huge deficit in agricultural trade.
• In 2007, $80 million in exports and $700 million in imports
creating a skewed export to import ratio of 1:9
• Still a net importer of agricultural and food products
• In 2009 largest value share of agricultural and food imports:
• live animals
• fruits and nuts
• fats and oils
• In 2009 largest value share of agricultural and food exports:
• Rawhides, skins, and other animal products
• Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
EU Integration Standards Important to
the Ag Trade
• Albania hopes to become an member of the European Union
(EU) in the next decade
• EU integration creates opportunities
• Subsidies for rural and agriculture development
• Potential export opportunities to EU and international food
markets
• EU integration imposes standards
• Product quality and safety
• Enhancement of efficiency
• If a strategic vision and planning is employed and
implemented, Albania can ease the transition process for its
agricultural sector
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
How the AHEED Project Can Help
• Ani, this slide still needs work
• Per Cathy we need to add: Now that the capacity building is
on its way, it is up to the stakeholders to participate and
capitalized the built capacity through collaboratively funding
and prioritizing the research agenda. Maybe this can be
worked in here???
• What is the mission of AHEED to assist in the research –
relevant research with extension, build faculty research
capacity thus student’s capacity
• Research Capacity for Policy. Stronger stress should be given
to the research and its conclusions regarding agricultural
issues.
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Examples of Recent AUT Research
Funded by the AHEED Project
• Consumer preferences for table olives, wine, olive oil,
lamb meat, apples
• Value chain analysis of fruits and vegetables sub
sector
• Evaluation of factors that influence implementation of
QMS in the meat processing industry in Albania
• Alternatives of improving management of value chain
for the greenhouse tomatoes production
• Alternative solutions for efficient use of refused land
in Shëngjergj Commune in Albania
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
AHEED/USAID Funded Project Results
Topic
Consumer
Demand
Year Study
Important Product
Location Attributes
WTP for
locally
produced
Olive Oil
2009
Tirana
Price, domestic
12 leks from virgin
to extra virgin
Wine
2009
Tirana
Italian, price
Lambmeat
2010
Tirana
Domestic Highland, Plains
Domestic over
Imports 100-200
leks
Olives
2011
Tirana
Domestic, Type (with seeds),
Color (green, brown)
10 leks per kg for
green olives
Apples
2011
Tirana
Types (Green, yellow, red but
not red yellow striped)
Domestic and Big
10 leks per kg
Milk
2011
Tirana
Lower fat 0-1.5%, Domestic
N.S.
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Policy Implications
• Specific market commodity attributes to
target
• Domestic product in demand - need to create
more quality standards and supply at
competitive prices (through new technology)
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
The AHEED Project’s Impact on
Albanian Agriculture
• Creating linkages between university, extension services,
farmers and policy makers
• Hosting workshops for faculty staff, extension and students
• Enabling research through scientific and financial assistance
• Especially, relevant Albanian agricultural crops: olive oil,
table olives, apples, greenhouse vegetables
• Promoting AUT research at national/international conferences
• This conference originated via the AHEED project and has
expanded in its 3rd year
• Enhancing the graduate student experience via improved
classes and research experience
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Extent of IMPACTS will depend on
US.
Excellent Coordination
• Setting S.M.A.R.T.
Goals
• Effective
communication
before and after.
• Balance needs.
• Reward teams and
performers.
Development
Project
Well-oiledAlbania-Hawaii
Machine Higher Education and Economic
Excellent
Equipment
Looking Forward
• Strong potential role for land grant type public institutions
• Provide technology and education program and
socioeconomic information
• Provide outreach to industry in coordination with
extension
• Provide infrastructure for reward for excellence in
research
• Also a role for the government
• Stimulate, assist, and coordinate a nationwide network
of regional, state, and local programs for technology
development and industrial extension
• Provide funding for training, research and policy
implementation
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Acknowledgements
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USAID (Jorgji Kristaq)
HED
AUT (Rector, Dean, Faculty, Students)
Dr. Engjell Skreli
Project Coordinator Dr. Ana Mane Kapaj
Project Assistant Jean Fantle Lepczyk
Ministry of Agriculture: Extension- Dr. Tatjana
Dishnica
• Other Drs. Edvin Zhllima and Drini Imami
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project
Falemenderit
Catherine Chan-Halbrendt
Jean Fantle-Lepczyk
Ana Mane
Albania-Hawaii Higher Education and Economic Development Project

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