Ofsted: Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution?

Report
Ofsted:
Part of the Problem or
Part of the Solution?
Robert Coe, Durham University
Association of Colleges Annual Conference, 19 November 2013
Ofsted: Part of the Problem or
Part of the Solution?




Both
The case for evidence and rigour
Accountability dos and
∂ don’ts
Problems with judgement and classroom
observation
 What could be improved?
2
Evidence and rigour in
the search for real
improvement
www.cem.org/attachments/publications/
ImprovingEducation2013.pdf
∂
(Updated from Coe, 2007)
4
School ‘improvement’ often isn’t
 School would have improved anyway
– Those willing to improve will (misattributed to intervention)
– Chance variation (esp if start low)
 Poor outcome measures
– Perceptions of those who worked hard at it
– No assessment of pupil learning
∂
 Poor evaluation designs
– Weak evaluations more likely to show positive results
– Improved intake mistaken for impact of intervention
 Selective reporting
– Dredging for anything positive (within a study)
– Only success is publicised
(Coe, 2009, 2013)
Effect Size (months gain)
Impact vs cost
www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit
Most promising for
raising attainment
8
May be
worth it
Feedback
Meta-cognitive
Peer tutoring
Homework
(Secondary)
Collaborative
Early Years
1-1 tuition
∂
Behaviour
Small gp
Phonics
Parental
tuition
involvement
ICT
Social
Individualised Summer
schools
learning
Mentoring
Homework
(Primary)
Performance Aspirations
0
pay
£0 Ability grouping
Cost per pupil
Smaller
classes
After
school
Teaching
assistants
£1000
Small
effects /
high cost
Monitoring the quality of teaching
 Classroom observation
– Much harder than you think!
– Multiple observations/ers, trained and QA’d
∂
 Progress in assessments
– Quality of assessment matters
 Student ratings
– Extremely valuable, if done properly
7
Accountability
Accountability cultures
Trust
Confidence
Challenge
Supportive
Improvement-focus ∂
Problem-solving
Long-term
Genuine quality
Evaluation
Distrust
Fear
Threat
Competitive
Target-focus
Image presentation
Quick fix
Tick-list quality
Sanctions
Ways to avoid gaming
 Choose measures that are genuinely aligned with
what is valued (& hard to distort)
 State general aims, but be vague/flexible about
specific targets/measures
 Actively look for (and publicise) gaming and
unintended consequences; encourage whistleblowing on counter-productive
gaming
∂
 Build in loophole-closing mechanisms (eg to realign credit with difficulty/value)
 Combine statistical measures with face-to-face
observation & judgement
 Measure a wide range of outcomes
 Look at distributions, not just thresholds
(Bevan & Hood, 2006; Bird et al., 2005;
Smith 1995; Fitz-Gibbon 1997)
Problems with
judgement and
classroom observation
Do We Know a Successful
Teacher When We See One?
 Filmed lessons (or short clips) of effective
(value-added) and ineffective teachers shown to
– School Principals and Vice-Principals
– Teachers
∂
– Public
 Some agreement among raters, but unable to
identify effective teaching
 No difference between education experts and
others
 Training in CLASS did help a bit
Strong et al 2011
12
Obvious – but not true
Why do we believe we can spot good teaching?

We absolutely know what we like
– Strong emotional response to particular behaviours/styles is
hard to over-rule





We focus on observable proxies for learning
– Learning is invisible
∂
Preferences for particular pedagogies are widely
shared, but evidence/understanding of their
effectiveness is limited
We think learning depends on what the teacher does
We assume that if you can do it you can spot it
We don’t believe observation can miss so much
13
Poor Proxies for Learning
 Students are busy: lots of work is done
(especially written work)
 Students are engaged, interested, motivated
 Students are getting attention: feedback,
explanations
∂
 Classroom is ordered, calm, under control
 Curriculum has been ‘covered’ (ie presented to
students in some form)
 (At least some) students have supplied correct
answers (whether or not they really understood
them or could reproduce them independently)
14
∂
Hamre et al (2009)
15
∂
Simons & Chabris (1999)
16
“We generally recommend that observers have some classroom
experience. However, we sometimes find that individuals with the
most classroom experience have the greatest difficulty becoming
certified CLASS observers. Experienced teachers or
administrators often have strong opinions about effective
teaching practice. The CLASS requires putting those opinions
aside, at least while using the CLASS, to attend to and score
specific, observable teacher-child interactions.” (Hamre et al
2009, p35)
“Becoming a certified CLASS observer requires attending a twoday Observation Training provided by a certified CLASS trainer
and passing a reliability test. The∂ reliability test consists of
watching and coding five 15-minute classroom video segments
online … Trainings with a CLASS certified trainer result in 6080% of trainees passing the first reliability test … CLASS
Observation recertification requirements include annually taking
and passing a reliability test.” (Hamre et al 2009, p37-8)
In the EPPE 3-11 study, observers had 12 days of training and
achieved an inter-rater reliability of 0.7. (Sammons et al 2006,
p56)
17
Reliability
Probability that 2nd rater
disagrees
Outstanding
12%
Best case
r = 0.7
∂ 51%
Good
Req. Impr.
Inadequate
55%
29%
4%
31%
46%
62%
43%
64%
90%
39%
45%
1st rater gives
%
Overall
Percentages based on simulations
18
Worst case
r = 0.24
78%
Validity
Probability value-added
data disagrees
1st rater gives
%
Outstanding
12%
Good
Best case
r = 0.4
Worst case
r = -0.3
96%
55%
∂ 71%
40%
Req. improv.
29%
59%
79%
Inadequate
4%
83%
>99%
51%
63%
Overall
Percentages based on simulations
19
45%
Part of the solution
 Accountability is here to stay
 It should definitely include site visits and
classroom observation
∂ and statements from
 Recent policy changes
Ofsted are positive
20
Requires Improvement
 Ofsted must demonstrate that all inspectors
are able to interpret complex data
 Ofsted should use a validated protocol for
∂
lesson observation, with
appropriate training
 Ofsted should demonstrate the validity of all
aspects of inspectors’ judgements
 There should be ongoing, transparent,
independently verified processes for QA
21

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